Geography of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was divided into two primary sections known as Upper and Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt is north of Upper Egypt. The Mediterranean Sea borders it to the north. The Nile River breaks up into tributaries in Lower Egypt and they mostly empty into the Mediterranean Sea. One branch goes to the Gulf of Suez.
Lower Egypt is greener and less dry. It was known as the Nile Delta where crops grew easily and there was much wild life. The Nile River would go through periods where it would overflow its banks making the soil in the basin very fertile. There were irrigation systems that spread the water from the Nile to the surrounding farms. Egyptian farmers raised tree crops, barley, wheat, peas, and other vegetables. Oil was one of the most prized products and was used as payment to the workers of the state.
Upper Egypt was at a higher elevation with mountain ranges in the Eastern Desert. The Nile River divided Upper Egypt into the Eastern and Western Deserts. The Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea were on the Eastern border of the Eastern Desert. The Red Desert of Western Egypt was a flatter and dry area that had very little life or water regardless of the season except for the Kharga Oasis and the Farfa Oasis.
Most of the pyramids were built in Lower Egypt. Most of the temples were built in Upper Egypt. The pyramids of Lower Egypt included: the Step Pyramid, Bent Pyramid, Pyramid of Khufu, Pyramid of Khafre, and Pyramid of Menkaure. The Great Sphinx is also located in Lower Egypt. The temples of Upper Egypt include the Temple of Hathor, Temple of Horus, Temples of Ramases II, Temple of Queen Nofretari, Temple of Isis, and Temple of Amenhotep III.
Memphis was the capital of Ancient Egypt. The city was built by King Menes about 3100 B.C. in Lower Egypt on the Nile.
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