The JPEG standard

Essay add: 28-10-2016, 18:28   /   Views: 22


Jpeg 2000 standard is based on the wavelet based compression developed for the needs of digital imaginary avoiding drawbacks of the past jpeg technology. The jpeg 2000 , the file extension of jpeg2000 is .jp2, more powerful tool in image processing application for higher compression rates and features which are not available on the previous standards [21].

Joint photographic expert group was developed image compression technique in 1987. In 1992 JPEG image compression technique became an international standard of compression. Jpeg is based on core standard of the discrete cosine transform. The new jpeg 2000 is base of discrete wavelet transform. The jpeg2000 was became popular, when this will effective in wide range of applications such as internet, digital photography, digital library, image archival, remote sensing, communication, networking, e-commerce..Etc[15].

In the past twenty years ago the digital images were rarely used, but now a days they are using many diverse applications like multimedia, digital photography, internet viewing, image achieving and finally in medical imaging. So there is need for high performance image compression. It is becoming popular for higher compression rate [1-h].

Jpeg 2000 standard is a new method for image processing and image compression applications. This jpeg 2000 is based on the wavelet transform based image coding technique for different types of images as gray scale, colour, bi-level or multi component. The jpeg 2000 is a image processing technique for different types of images like natural images, medical, remote sensing, text and rendered graphics. This is an useful tool for different imaging models like real-time transmission, digital image library archival, limited buffer and bandwidth resources [21].

The main disadvantage of the jpeg2000 when compared to the jpeg is that the coding system is more complex and computations need much higher rates. The jpeg 2000 is 30 times more complex than the present jpeg technology. Especially for this type of problems there is need for high performance VLSI chips to speed up the discrete wavelet transform and jpeg2000 is suitable for real-time applications [15].

Most of the soft technologies doesn't support jpeg2000 files, which have the extension .j2k, but jpeg2000 standard is become more popular when the image compression industry is recognized its features [15].


There are some efficient features of the jpeg2000 technology is listed below.

Superior low-bit rate performance:

Its offers great performance visual quality and peak signal to noise ratio at low bit rates below the 0.25 bits/pixel. Jpeg 2000 gives good visual quality when compared to jpeg. This low bit rate performance is used for the transmission of compressed images.

Continuous tone and bi-level image compression:

The jpeg2000 is standard for compressing and decompressing of digital images for continuous tone means colour, gray level images and bi-level images. Another standard was developed to transmit bi-level images.

Large dynamic range of pixels:

The jpeg 2000 systems can compress and decompress the images with different range of pixels. There is specific dynamic range for each component is 1 to 16 bits, but jpeg 2000 system allowed having 38 bits precision based on the bit stream syntax.

Large images and large number of image components:

It can allow the maximum size of an image (2^32-1)X(2^32-1) and the maximum number of components in the image to be 2^14. This large image and large components is especially for satellite imaging, which has the multispectral images with the large number of image components.

Lossless and lossy compression:[Harvey-jpeg]

The main advantage of the jpeg2000 is it offers both lossy and lossless compression in the same file format. The reversible integer wavelet transform make the lossless compression is done by the same coding stream. So, the same tool is useful in various applications like medical imaging (lossless compression), communication networks.

Fixed size can be pre-assigned:[15]

This can allow to users to select their desired size to compress the image file. The compression can be done bit by bit until the desired compression can be achieved.

Progressive transmission by pixel accuracy:[Harvey-jpeg]

Progressive transmission is technique that allows synthesizing with different pixel accuracy and different resolution. This allows to decompose or reconstruct the images at different pixel accuracy, resolution is as desired for specific applications.

Random code stream and processing:[h-1]

In an image there are many parts which has more priority than the another one. This allows accessing the particular region of image with less distortion then the rest of the image. Also for random, translation, filtering, features extractions and scaling.

Region of interest coding:[15]

Jpeg 2000 offers the region of interest by the user defined. This will provide prioritized image by the user, to which will provide the fully quality layer.

Robustness to bit- errors:

This feature is considered to robustness to bit errors while designing the code stream. This is the important application in wireless communication channels [15]. Jpeg 2000 provides this by coding small size independent blocks and including resynchronisation in the syntax of compressed bit stream. There are also some routes to detect and connect with in each code block. This feature is applicable for 3G -mobile technology.

Sequential coding (real time coding):[h-1]

This feature is capable of compressing and decompressing of an image from top to bottom with single sequential pass, without usage of any buffer. So, it's suitable for low memory chip VLSI implementation. The line based implementation is useful for this feature [15].

WORKING OF JPEG 2000:[Harvey-2]

The jpeg 2000 is wavelet based compression method, which provides more benefits over the DCT compression based JPEG.JPEG (dct) compress image into 8X8 blocks and places them consecutively in the file. In jpeg 2000 blocks are compressed separately without any adjoin blocks. So, it reduces the blockiness which is with jpeg compressed files.

The wavelet compression is standard for converting image into series of wavelets and these can be stored in different pixel blocks. Wavelets also have the rough edges , they can eliminate the blcokiness which is common fault in DCT compression. It gives the smaller images than the jpeg image with the same level of compression in jpeg2000.

The wavelet transform is first applied to the source image data. These transformed wavelet coefficients are quantized in quantization block and then entropy coded in entropy coding block. The decoder is the just reverse of the encoder. In the decoder the source data is first entropy decoded then de-quantized and transformed by the inverse wavelet transform then finally the image will reconstructed [h-2]. Jpeg 2000 works for both lossy and lossless compression. This will depends on the wavelet transform and quantization applied.

Image tiling:[h-2]

The image tiling is performed in jpeg 2000. Image tiling can be done by dividing the image into different blocks. The image is divided into rectangular non-overlapping blocks called image tiling. These individual blocks are processed and compressed independently like separate images. All blocks of encoding, wavelet transform, quantization, entropy coding, performed independently for each different tile. Image tiling especially to reduce the memory of image, since each tile reconstructed independently, they can reconstructed specific parts of image instead of whole image. Each tile is array of integer in sign-magnitude representation. This array shows the number of bit planes.

DC level shifting:[h2]

Before performing the transformation or before applying the DWT on each tile, all images are DC level shifted by subtracting the same quantity. DC level shifting exploits moving an image tile into desired bit plane. And it is also used for region of interest coding.

Each tile performed DWT, and then all tiles decomposed into sub bands. These sub-bands contain details and approximations of the original image.

The wavelet transform based image compression for jpeg 2000 is functionally one- dimensional. To perform one dimensional transformation on both directions such as horizontal and vertical forms the two-dimensional. This form blocks like low resolution, one with high resolution, low horizontal, low vertical, high horizontal, high vertical and one with high resolution.

The daubechies family of filters are widely used for wavelet families. The reversible integer wavelet transform is implemented by using the 5/3 le-gull filter. As the part of thesis, the le-gull 5/3 filter coefficients are used for transformation.

The jpeg 2000 standard allows both methods of wavelet transform that are convolution based and lifting based methods. For the convolution based approach is performing a series of products between the low pass and high pass coefficients and the extended one dimensional signal. Lifting based method of filtering is performed by updating the odd samples with some even samples and updating even samples with some even samples ( predict and update).

After transformation, all times can be quantized in quantization block. In quantization step each sub-band treated as partition. Each packet contains improved resolution level on tile. In quantization , the image will be divide low resolution approximation of the original image and It improves till it reaches its maximum quality level.

After quantization step, the entropy coding is performed. This can be performed on each block individually. This can be done by binary arithmetic coding of bit planes. The arithmetic coding performed through process of each bit plane series of code passes. The first pass(propagation pass) in this bit coded if the location is not significant but one of its neighbour is significant. Second one is magnitude refinement pass. Third one is clean-up process which can check any of bits are not coded in the above passes. After completion of this passes, entropy coding is over then image is ready to store compression of its original.

Region of interest is the main feature of the jpeg 2000. This regions which are specified by the user, coded with good quality than the rest of image. This ROI performed by scaling up, Dc level shifting and these bits of ROI are placed in higher bit planes. When the embedded coding process, these bits are placed in bit stream before the part of image is not interest. This way the ROI will decoded than the rest of the image.

BENFITS OF JPEG 2000:[intopix]
  • Mathematically lossless compression that is 2:1.
  • Lossy and visually lossless compression.
  • Scalability: To decode different versions of a single compressed file
  • Quality progression

    Resolution progression

    Position progression

    Component progression

  • Dynamic bandwidth allocation: This for giving priority to the fundamental data that allows achieving best quality bandwidth.
  • Easy post- production and easy editing, each frame can edited easy without need of group frames.
  • Low latency: It allows latency of less than one frame for encoding and decoding.
  • Constant quality through multiple generation.
  • Open standard: It supports every resolution, any colour depth, large number of components and frame rate.
  • It offers both lossy and lossless compression in the same image file stream.
  • Jpeg 2000 offers higher compression ratios for lossy compression over jpeg.
  • Jpeg offer higher compression ratios 2:5:1.
  • Jpeg 2000 is its ability to display at different resolution and sizes from same image file.
  • Jpeg 2000 offers high compression ratios for lossy compression over jpeg.
  • Compression efficiency can be measured by using peak to signal noise ratio/ route mean square.
  • Jpeg 2000 offers compression ratios 2.5:1 for lossless compression, where the jpeg is unsatisfactory in lossless mode.
  • Jpeg 2000 is capable of display images at different resolutions and different sizes in same image file where as in jpeg. Its only display in single way with particular resolution.
  • By using jpeg, the different image file is needed for generating each picture but by using jpeg 2000, same image file could be used for the user defined resolution to display the image.

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