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Introduction Influenza disease impacts annually up to 10% of the world's population, equating up to 500millions of people (Gerdil., 2003). Actual accounts of in?uenza in humans approximately date back to the 12th century. Possible pandemics are documented as far back as 1510, but the ?rst one to be clearly recognised was in 1580 ( Nguyen-Van-Tam & Hampson.,2003) .31 influenza pandemics have been documented with the five most recent in 1889,1900,1918,1957 and 1968 separated consecutively by...
In 2008 Eisenbarth GS polonsky KS have described the diabetes mellitus as the high glucose level which is accumulate in blood. This is a chronic condition that cannot be cured in life time. But it can be managed by balanced diet, physical activity & oral medications (1). Under this topic we have to discuss about how to control the sugar level in blood at diabetes mellitus....
The much demanded Vernonia oil is derived from the species Vernonia galamensis, which is an oil seed crop originating in different parts of Africa, such as Ethiopia and Eritrea among many other tropic destinations. It is unusual that it has the ability to thrive in these types of areas due to their under-nourished, cheap soils. Using these kinds of soils may be the cause that the plant resembles a weed-like image and therefore, in some ways it can be said that its desirable qualities are...
Although the requirement for Se often is met by the natural feedstuffs in poultry diets, there are several detrimental conditions that can result in poultry when dietary Se is deficient. Exudative diathesis, pancreatic fibrosis, and impaired reproduction are observed if the Se level in the diet is deficient. Exudative diathesis and pancreatic fibrosis, which are discussed in detail below, have a major difference in the form of Se needed to alleviate their deficiency signs. Reproductive...
The human organism consists of trillions of cells all working together for the maintenance of the entire organism. While cells may perform very different functions, all the cells are quite similar in their metabolic requirements. Maintaining a constant internal environment with all that the cells need to survive (oxygen, glucose, mineral ions, waste removal, and so forth) is necessary for the well-being of individual cells and the well-being of the entire body. The varied processes by which the...
Recently, Parasitic Zoonoses have become the most important in many parts of the world. These infections are now spreading globally and increasing every year regarding to the interaction between human and animal, migration, intensification of agriculture, habitat devastation, and changes in world trade patterns. McCarthy and Moore (2000) pointed that the possible reasons for emergence of Helminth zoonoses is "the social and environmental change, variety of dietary or culture, advancing in...
The primary objective of the essay is to use the functional attributes to analyse and understand the ecology of Marine benthic communities and how the feeding and life traits of these benthic species affects their relationship with the environment and the ecological value of this investigation. Section 1. This will outline what a benthic organism is and the major abiotic features that affect marine benthic communities both natural and manmade, displaying how benthic communities can adapt or...
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the highest causes of death and disability in the western world today. This particular disease includes the disorders to the heart and the blood vessels (veins and arteries). The aim of this review is to investigate the role of ADMA and DDAH in regulation of nitric oxide signalling pathways and whether there marker or mediators in cardiovascular disorders. The review will also look at different cardiovascular diseases and the role played by nitric oxide in...
The functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is becoming significant in the growing field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials chemistry as it allows properties such as polarity and solubility to be manipulated. There have been a number of strategies to functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), including the targeting of defects, end caps, side walls and the hollow interior (Hirsch, 2002) (Sinnott, 2002) (Bahr & Tour, 2002). Actual chemical approaches include...
In 1989, Sidney Altman and Thomas Cech received a Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of RNA as a biocatalyst, in addition to being the molecule of heredity. While announcing the award, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences made a perceptive comment: "future use of gene shears will require that we learn more about the molecular mechanisms of RNA". The discovery of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of RNA interference accentuates this objective. RNA interference (RNAi) is an...