All kinds of living organisms consist of cells, which are the smallest known living units, the smallest parts of any existence of life. The cell is the morphological and functional unit that all organisms are composed of. Robert Hooke was the first that observed a plant cell using a compound microscope (1655) and used the word 'cell' for the first time. After a long time Theodor Schwann came to frame the 'cell theory', which says that cells are the basic unit of structure in every living thing...
Proteins are present in cells of all living organisms and are responsible for the translation of genetic information. Proteins are constructed from linear sequences of amino acids which interact with each other to create a three dimensional structure. The well-defined three dimensional structures of proteins, such as enzymes, are the key to specificity. The linear sequence of amino acids of a protein or polypeptide is called the primary structure and is understood to be defined by DNA. However...
The subject area that I interested in is blood disorder related to defective haemoglobin, either too few globin chain synthesised or incorrectly functioning globin. Sickle-cell disease, anemia and thalassemia are all caused by faulty haemoglobin. Among these three diseases, I interested to make a research about thalassemia to get an overall overview on what exactly thalassemia is. It is also important to us to be knowledgeable on thalassemia in order to prevent this disease from more spread out...
One of the most common unit operations in preparation of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms is the physical blending of the active drug substance with one or more excipients. The end point of this process is material homogeneity as measured by sampling and off-line analysis of the powder. Removal of samples is currently done with a sampling probe called a thief to withdraw samples from different locations of a blender. A sample thief is a probe designed to extract and collect small volumes of...
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease that was associated with Cdk5 and parkin activity. Recent research has shown the mechanism behind the Cdk5 and parkin interaction, but has yet to look at the function of this interaction in relation to Parkinson's disease and whether there is an element of PD causation behind this interaction. A parkin construct with the Cdk5 phosphorylation site residues replaced to render these sites functionless was used in vitro and in vivo...
There are two main ways through which current anti-obesity drugs work, either by suppressing the patient's appetite or by preventing the absorption of food from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Anorectics function by suppressing the patient's appetite through acting on the Central Nervous system (CNS). Anorectics stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and alter the behaviour of their nerve terminals. Through this action of anorectics, the patient's calorie intake is significantly reduced...
Experts - they need to use the data that the volunteers that collected from the survey to carry out the research of the birds' life If allow the volunteers to input the data directly into the system, there will have the following problems: The volunteers will input the wrong data in the inappropriate field, so it will affect the result of the research. The volunteers will ask another one to input the data, due to this people is not the one who carry out the survey, they will input the wrong...
Practically insoluble in organic solvents. In cold or hot water, guar gum disperses and swells almost immediately to form a highly viscous, thixotropic sol. The optimum rate of hydration occurs at PH 7.5-9. Finely milled powders swell more rapidly and are more difficult to disperse. Two or four hours in water at room temperature are required to develop maximum viscosity. Guar gum is compatible with most other plant hydrocolloids such as tragacanth. It is incompatible with acetone, alcohol,...
Relatively common, occurs in approximately 25% of all pregnancies. As it is so upsetting for parents, the utmost sensitivity is required, even at very early gestations. Clinical management should be founded on 2 important principles: The incidence of miscarriage has been shown to increase with maternal age, rising by a factor of 10 after the age of 40yrs compared to before 35yrs. Overall, when the foetus is found to be viable on ultrasound scan, the chance of a successful outcome is...
Meningiomas and schwannomas are common tumours of the brain caused by mutations in the gene for merlin and occur early in life when inherited. Population based studies suggest that up to 1:300 people will develop a tumour in their lifetime (spontaneous or inherited) caused by a mutation in the merlin gene 1, 2. As these tumours grow slowly classical chemotherapeutic treatments are not effective. The only treatment options currently available are local therapies, surgery and radiosurgery,...