AOA syndromes such as A-T, A-TLD, AOA1 and AOA2 are characterized by cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia and neurological symptoms (Di Donato, 2000). Recently, a novel form of AOA syndrome known as AOA3 has been identified. The AOA3 patient has no mutation in all the known genes responsible for other AOA syndrome such as ATM (A-T), MRE-11 (A-TLD), APTX (AOA1) and SETX (AOA2) (Gueven et al., 2007). The clinical characteristics of AOA3 include neurodegeneration, cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor...
Commonly used conventional antiepileptic drugs for pharmacotherapy in epilepsy are Phenobarbital, Carbamazepine and Valproic Acid. The aim of this paper was to provide information about these three anti-epileptic drugs by comparing and contrasting there actions, pharmacokinetic paramaters and side-effects profile. Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. These seizures occur when messages from the brain to the muscles are not properly...
There are lots of theories gathered / collected / accumulated that have tried to explain the ageing of humans. Specific research is being especially carried out into the percentage of elderly population that has increased over the years, the amount of national expenditure / GDP used / spent on the elderly population, and together with the fact the average human lifespan is increasing / lengthening and these areas have caused interest for further research to be undertaken in the field in order...
This 52 year old lady presented with the complaints of difficulty in swallowing with nasal intonation of voice for the last 15 days and weakness of all four limbs for the last 12 days. She became symptomatic about 15 days ago when she noticed food getting stuck in throat while swallowing. She also noticed that the difficulty in swallowing was to both solids and liquids and while attempting to swallow liquids there was nasal re.g.urgitation of fluids.Analyze the symptom and how would you...
In the study of zoology, one of the most important factors in regard to the interaction of species is phylogeny. Phylogeny is the evolutionary development and history of a species or higher taxonomic grouping of organisms.1 In other words, it is the evolutionary history of a species or group of species. It is one of the first things that is considered when inspecting animals to gain a better understanding of their life and physical characteristics. This scientific method relies heavily on DNA...
ContentsIntroductionHistory of discovery Apple scab was first discovered in 1819 (Fries.E, 1819), but possibly existed at least two centuries prior to its discovery; as indicated by Michel Angelo Caravaggio's painting: "The Supper at Emmaus" (c. 1600) - which depicts several scab lesions on the apples in the painting, similar to apple scab symptoms. Apple scab only appeared to be a problem once growing habits changed according to the higher demand for apples after the 1800's. Apples...
Enough horse fossils have been found so that archaeologists are able to trace the evolution of horses. The earliest fossil of a horse found was a dog sized Eohippus (Tyagi, 2009). This four toed Eohippus lived around 55 million years ago (Hall, 2010). The Equus mostly stayed the same with the exception of slight toe and teeth changes. During the Oligocene era about 34-34 million years ago the horse grew in size and 4 toes evolved into 3. Also in this time the horse had vanished from Europe,...
Todays anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are written daily. In a few years, intelligent agents navigating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At IBM, they are developing novel, biologically inspired anti-virus techniques designed to thwart both today's and tomorrow's viruses. Here we...
Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of, if not the most, common form of dementia. According to a report from the Alzheimer's association (US numbers) from 2011 one in eight people aged 65 and older (13 percent) has Alzheimer's disease and nearly half of people aged 85 and older (43 percent) have Alzheimer's disease. Despite the vast time and investment spend on investigating the disease the field still lacks consensus regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of sporadic AD. The disease is thought to...
Our supplement will focus more on the bulking up of the physique by producing a lot protein via non-essential amino acids which your body does not produce. Amino acids are chemical building blocks of protein which assist in protein metabolism. There are two different types of amino acids which can be found, essential and non-essential amino acids. Essential Amino acids are produced by your body naturally and non-essential amino acids which your body is not able to produce, can be found in your...