Defensins were first identified as antimicrobial peptides and later several lines of evidence suggest that they can interact with host immune cells, thereby playing important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses against bacterial infection. They are classified into α, β and θ Defensins (Shi, 2007). This dissertation reports the investigation of the expression of Defensin genes; α Defensins 1, 4, 5 and 6 and β Defensin 1, 4 and 5 in monocytic cell line, THP-1, using reverse...
Morphine is class of drugs called opioid which potentially cause change in mood, physical dependence, tolerance and rewarding effects which would eventually cause drug dependence. Oipoid drugs have effect on both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In central nervous systm opioids have effects on spinal cord and other parts of CNS. In peripheral nervous system opioid have effects of nerve tissue under lining muscles within oesophagus and submucous plexus in the wall of gud which causes...
During the twenty first century breast cancer has become one of the leading causes of death amongst women in the United Kingdom. More than forty-five thousand women were diagnosed in two-thousand and seven (Office for National Statistics, 2010) with breast cancer and fifty percent of those with early stage cancer will progress to advanced disease (Lewis et al. 2002). Many factors affect the prognosis of advanced breast cancer including age, extent of disease, oestrogen receptor status, and...
The stages of protein synthesis include transcription, mRNA processing, mRNA splicing and translation. Pre-mRNA splicing is the removal of introns, which are non-coding sequences for genes and essentially non-sense codes found on pre-mRNA strands, staggered within coding sequences of genes called exons. All mRNA strands involved in protein synthesis must undergo pre-mRNA splicing in order to produce mRNA that is then ready to undergo translation so that functional proteins can be produced....
Introduction The Harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, are true seals. True seals do not have ears. They are mainly found in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean to the Baltic Sea. This makes them the most wide ranging seals of all pinnipeds. Commonly brown, gray, or tan, these seals have a distinct V-shaped nostril. These marine mammals are one of the many that are not near extinction. This is mainly due to reproduction, habitat, and...
There is a quite strong evidence for a positive association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer risk [6]. Only a small proportion of all infected individuals develop gastric cancer. Those with duodenal ulcer seem to be protected and so it has been postulated that certain circumstances might modify the relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer [7]. Factors of importance include age at infection, characteristics of the host such as gastric acid secretory...
Parkinson is a neurodegenerative, slowly progressive neurological disease which develops when certain nerve cells of the brain, in a region called the substantia nigra, die or become impaired. It affects muscle control, and balance, associated with the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells which are referred to as parkinsonisms. To date there has been little agreement on what is the best treatment for Parkinson disease. Levodopa (L-DOPA) has been widely used as the main drug to treat...
Referring to the chemical structure it can be seen that bupropion has a fairly hydrophilic core benzene ring and polar groups such as the chloro-group, amine and ketone. The amine group does increase water solubility because it is polar but more importantly it is ionisable which significantly increases the water solubility (Jamie, 2011): Bupropion has a pKa of 7.9 (O'Byrne et al., 2010). The amine on the carbon chain can act as a weak base: The partition coefficient (logP) equalled 3.21: drugs...
The aims of the investigation is to measure the pressure distribution on the surface of a smooth cylinder placed with its axis perpendicular to the flow and to compare it with the distribution predicted for frictionless flow, and to calculate the drag coefficient of the cylinder. In the investigation being carried out, a cylinder in a closed circuit wind tunnel will be experimented upon to gather the pressure distribution acting on it at different speeds. When the cylinder is standing...
The present contribution deals with size controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles through green route by using sulfated polysaccharide isolated from marine red algae by controlling the pH. These nanoparticles were well characterized by UV/Visible spectroscopy, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential measurement. The obtained silver nanoparticles showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) centered at 404 nm with average particle size measured to be 15±3 nm. The dose dependent effect...