The Vast Majority Of Cases Of Diabetes Plunge Biology
Globally, it can be seen that instead of searching and developing the synthetic medicines, human beings are now treasuring the plants for their medicinal values. The reasons for these are various, but the most common would be cynicism with the result of or the lack of faith in the medicine therapy and trepidation about the toxicity and safety of modern drugs1. This new drift is developed due to the enough far-reaching experimental modification and testing performed on diverse chemical moieties. The result of such experimentation leads to assessment of new potent medicines.
World Health Organization (WHO) has been distinct with a traditional system of medicine as "the sum total of all the information and practices, whether reasonable or not; used in analysis, preventions and riddance of physical, mental or social imbalance and relying exclusively on practical experience and observation handed down by generation to generation whether verbally or in writing". In other words traditional system of medicine might also be considered as a solid combination of dynamic medical know-how and experience2.
From ancient time, ayurvedic system of medicine is well-liked in India. Ayurveda is a holistic system from India that uses a lawful model. It aspires is to endow with guidance regarding food and lifestyle so that people can stay healthy and folks with health challenges can improve their health. Various parts of different plants are used as the remedies by the people. They have been following Sushutra, Charak and Veda etc. for the preparation of various drugs.
Thus the demand for the plant derived drugs is enhanced. It is factual that, for acute ailments there is no crude drug. However with no detrimental side effects plant preparation are often considered to be useful for the treatment of less serious disease, for the supportive treatment of chronic diseases, for the treatment over long periods of time and possibly for prophylactic medication. Thus medicinal plants continue to receive attention of scientist for their chemical and pharmacological research in India and abroad. Besides these, the studies on folk medicines through ethno botanical surveys are gaining importance in present day researchers as these disclose new biodynamic compounds of therapeutic value.
With the age, incidence of diabetes mellitus increases. The population over 65 years old almost has 19 % to 25 % diabetes surveyed by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey3. At present in India 20 million peoples are diabetic. It is anticipated that in 2025 India will be the second country to having the more number of diabetics in the world4.
Occurrence of the diabetes is much higher in older Hispanics, African Americans, Native Indians, Scandinavians, Japanese, and Micronesians. An individual who is older than the age of 65 usually have type 2 diabetes mellitus. It accounts for only 6 % to 10 % newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus in late life5. In addition, small ratios of older individuals who initially have type II diabetes appear to become insulin dependent over time.
Diabetes mellitus has been a universal problem of world from the centuries. It is a disease related to the sweetness, characterized by existence of excessive sugar in blood and urine due to lack in the production of insulin by pancreas or presence of ineffective insulin. The growth of disease is hasty due to the heredity, endocrine imbalance, dietary imprudence, severe and continued mental stress, and reduction in physical labor and differences in social structure etc., which is providing a fruitful atmosphere to diabetes2.
The vast majority of cases of diabetes plunge into one of the two broad classes.
Type I diabetes (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) is characterized by an absolute deficiency of insulin caused by pancreatic beta cell destruction. It accounts for approximately 10 % of all cases.
Type II diabetes (Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) is caused by combination of peripheral resistance to insulin action and an inadequate secretary response by pancreatic beta cells. Approximately 85 to 90 % of patients have type II diabetes.
In the diabetic patients, long-term revelation to hyperglycemia induces generation of free radicals which leads to many biochemical modifications, such as non-enzymatic glycation, sorbitol-myoinositol-mediated changes, redox potential alterations, protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism in myocytes6, 7.
Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, leading to microvascular and macrovascular pathologies such as diabeticnephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, embriopathy and cardiomyopathy. The vital reason behind diabetic complications is oxidative stress involved due to hyperglycemia induced free radical generation8.
Diabetic control and complications trial (DCDT) recommended that alternative therapy should be needed for controlling diabetic complications, even though tight control over blood glucose level is efficiently reduces clinical complications effectively9.
Inflammation is a pathological reaction of living tissue to injuries that leads to the local accumulation of plasmatic fluid and blood cells. Although it is defense mechanism, the complex events and mediators involved in inflammatory reaction can be induced, maintain or exaggerate many diseases10. It is a complex happening, comprising of biochemical as well as immunological factors. It is documented by following symptoms such as Rubor (redness), Tumor (Swelling), Calor (heat), Dolor (pain) and Functio laesa (Loss of functions) 11. Different degree of inflammation occurs at different conditions and on the basis of that inflammations are classified as acute, sub-acute and chronic inflammation.
Quisqualis indica Linn commonly known as Lalchameli dispersed throughout India is cultivated in gardens for its good-looking and fragrant flowers. It is large woody shrub native to tropical Africa and tropical Indo-Malaysian region. It is cultivated in gardens throughout India up to altitude of 300 M. The plant is in profuse blossoming almost throughout the year. Flowers emerge in succession in dropping clusters, they open in evening as white flowers, gradually assuming a pink touch by morning and depending to deep red by late afternoon. They are sweet fragrance. The plant rarely bears a fruit in north India.
Seeds contain nitrogenous matter 10.5%, fat 23.7%, cellulose 3.8% and ash 6.3 %. Maleic, citric, succinic acid, unidentified alkaloid and potassium sulphate (3.9%) were also present. Seed yields yellow color fatty oil of specific gravity 0.907. The special standards for oil are saponification value 187-202, iodine value 59-67, acetyl value 3-21. Fatty acid composition of oil is myristic 4.3%. The fruit contains trigonelline, deep red flowers contains cyanidin monoglycoside. Fruits and seeds of Quisqualis indica Linn have anthelmentic properties.
In China full-grown seeds are roasted and given in diarrhoea and fever, used for rickets in children and as an external use in the skin disease. Oil extracted from seeds possesses purgative properties. Extracts from the root and leaves are also useful as anthelmentic. Malays use the juice of leaves as a lotion for spoils and ulcers. Leaves are used in compound decoction to relive flatulence.
Rutin from leaves and pelargonidin-3-glycoside from flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn were isolated. The anthelmentic principle was isolated and recognized as a quisqualic acid. Four crystalline constituent were identified from the leaves and recognized as a Trigonilline, L-Proline, L-Aspargine and K- Quisqualate. Anticociadal effects of herb extracts against Eimeria tenella were studied.
Very less work has been completed on leaves and flowers so this intends me to work on leaves and flowers. The main principle of this work is to study chemical constituents, their quantification and pharmacological activities mainly anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic of extracts of flowers and leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn.
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