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Treatments For Throat Infections Novel Approaches Biology

Essay add: 5-04-2017, 17:22   /   Views: 18

Throat infections caused by bacteria especially staphylococcus and streptococcus varieties are most common infections to human beings. It can be of two types viral and bacterial. Fortunately wide range of treatments is available to cure throat infections caused due to bacteria, but unfortunately no such effective treatments are available to cure viral one. Antibiotics have been globally accepted as most effective and assured treatment for bacterial throat infections for years. Confusion of whether to go with antibiotics for acute infections has raised several debates. Most acute infections resolve without use of antibiotics so the question arises do the physicians need to prescribe antibiotics for acute upper respiratory infections. Intake of antibiotics without proper diagnosis would be likely to make infections more severe and extensive. Conventional method of treatment using antibiotics has been shifted to greater emphasis on changing habitat of microorganisms rather than killing them. This approach has led researchers to think beyond antibiotics. As a result they come up with many alternatives to antibiotics treatment to cure bacterial throat infections. The most common remedies which have been studied are use of colloidal materials, Phytoaromatherapy, Isoimmune modulaor therapy.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Need for non antibiotic treatment

Though antibiotics are recommended for treatment of life threatning or severe implications causes due to bacterial infections gradually it is started to be prescribed for simple and minor bacterial infections. Repeated and frequent use of antibiotics disturbs persons own immunity also causing harmful effects to organs of body as well as internal ecology and other good bacteria inside our body. Further more antibiotics cause more morbidity then it reduces. It is also now clear that antibiotics only modify slightly course of throat infections. Given this evidence, physicians need to consider about range of solutions may be available before prescribing any antibiotics [1].

2.2 TYPES OF ALTERNATIVES

There are numerous alternatives of treatment available for curing throat infection by bacteria including ultraviolet light, Rife frequency generators, Chinese herbs, homeopathic medications, and many more. Along with these remedies there are other methods that are in used among European physicians practicing alternative medicine: essential oils with tinctures, isopathic immune modulators, , and metallic colloids [1].

2.3 COLLOIDAL SILVER

Colloidal silver has been used during past for treatment of various virulent life threatening infections. Colloidal silver works on the principle of nanotechnology which is the study to control nano particles in a supportive way. Colloidal silver has been used for years for treatment of antiseptics, disinfectants, as well as purifier for purifying water. The solution of silver is formed when silver subjected to tremendous amount of energy and dissolved in water. This results in stable dispersion of solids in liquids. The solids maintain electric fields while dispersed in water. The entire range of silver antimicrobial properties is patent-protected. [1,2].

Figure 2.3.1 Colloidal silver

2.3 MODE OF ACTION OF SILVER-SOL

The new silver solution or silver sol is revolution in field of nanotechnology. Silver sol is ultrafine silver particles dispersed in deionized water. It constitute of antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial properties. It works on the principle that when metallic silver dissolved in water is taken the mineral charges transferred to the entire body. It works on pathogens by 3 ways- by resonance, by contact and by magnetic disruption. General mode of action of silver follows 4 scientific tested mechanisms [3].

By principle of contact-Unique oxide coating of silver removes electron from cell wall causing rupture of membrane of bacteria.

By principle of resonance-Magnetic resonance of 890-910 terahertz emitted by silver nano particles causes destruction of pathogens.

By magnetic disruption-Replication of DNA is magnetically interfered by the supercharged silver sol particles making the pathogen inactive.

Some silver sol also disrupts the intra cellular communications.

Figure 2.3.1 mode of action of silver sol

2.4 MODE OF ACTION OF ISOIMMUNOPATHIC MODULATOR

Another type of alternative medication is a one type of immune modulating medication called “Isopathic medication”. It is a system of healing using microorganisms of same pathology that is causing disease diluted with homeopathic medicines. It works on the principle that internal environment of human body determines the fate of the microorganisms. That is if human body stays healthy microorganisms inside stays healthy and works supportive in action, but when the internal environment changes microorganisms adapt to that environment and contributes to damage, dysfunction and diseases. The mechanism followed on introducing like organisms by changing their forms to more supportive forms. This serves to repopulate and simultaneously reducing number of harmful microorganisms [4].

2.5 MODE OF ACTION OF PHYTOAROMATHERAPY

This treatment was initiated in france and now it is finding interest in wide range of populations. This treatment uses alcohol and glyserine based extracts, supplemented with pharmaceutical based essential oils that are taken orally or inhaled or massaged. It works on the principle of draining and decongesting tissues. This treatment is according to individual’s body type and patterns. The olfactory system is stimulated by the smell to bring positive effect to both mind and body. The chemical compositions in essential oils reach in form of aroma to limbic system of brain. As brain controls emotions, mood, memory, learning hence the smells puts specific effect via brain. When the oil applied externally it stimulates thermal receptor and destroys microbes also reduce inflammation [5].

Figure 2.5.1 Mode of action of Phytoaromatherapy

2.5 MECHANISM OF ACTION OF BACTERIOPHAGE THERAPY

The widespread use antibiotics have attended a position of stability due to fast acquired resistance of pathogens towards antibiotics. This thought has motivated researchers for introducing prebiotic era with development of novel alternative antibacterials including bacteriophages(phages). Bacteriophages conventionally classified into 2 categories according to the strategies they use to escape their hosts and kill the pathogens: filamentous phage and lytic phage [6]. Lytic phase considered to be having the antibacterial properties. An enzyme called bacterial cell wall hydrolases play important role in lytic phage. Bacterial cell wall hydrolases can be classified into 3 subgroups: lysoszymes, microlysin, virolysin. Lysine kills only the species of bacteria from which they are produced. Lysine effective against only gram+ve bacteria as it can make direct contacts with cellwall carbohydrates and peptidoglycan. Lysin composes of 2 gene products PlyCA and PlyCB and S. pyogenes is highly sensitive to Ply V12 lysin [7]. Virolysin are phage encoded lytic enzymes also called endolysins capable of killing even lysozyme resistant bacteria. Virolysins are often composed of two structural domains, a C-terminal cell wall binding domain and one or two N-terminal catalytic domains. Catalytic domain expresses any one of following lytic activity: N-acetylmuramidase, lytic transglycosylase, endo-b-N-acetylglucosaminidase, endopeptidase and Nacetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase. The first three class acts on sugar molecule of peptidoglycan while the endopeptidases act on the peptide molecule and the amidases hydrolyze the amide bonds connecting the glycan strand and peptide molecule causing lysis of cell wall [6].

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