Development Of The Flower Biology
Banana is genus of Musa and family of Musaceae. It was originally from Malaysia and are now cultivated all over the tropical and sub-tropical continents. Banana plants are the worlds biggest herbs, grown abundantly in many developing countries (G. Aurore et al., 2009). Musa sapientum trees are best cultivated in a highly organic soil with pH 5.5-7.0. This plant need a lot of water is to grow and yield bananas.
After 9-12 month of planting the banana plant, flower start to develop. The underground stem initiates the development of the flower. The stem is also known as pseudostem. After producing single bunch of banana, this pseudostem will die and replace with new pseudostem. Banana plant can grow up to the height of 2-8m. Fruit maturation take an about 60 - 90 days after flowers first appear. The banana fruit grows in hanging cluster, with twenty fruits to a tier and 3 - 20 tiers to a bunch. The fruit is protected by its peel which is discarded as waste after the inner fleshy portion is eaten (Anhwange, B. A. et al., 2009).
The primary reason for the cultivation of banana plant is its fruits. Banana fruits are widely available and they had been used as food without apparent toxic affect. In some countries, banana fruit and its peel are considered to be the golden fruit of nature because they do helps to promote natural beauty by providing the body with essential nutrients and also healthy digestion. It have been reported that banana fruit do help preventing anaemia, cure the heart burns stress, strokes, ulcers and many other minor illness. Banana should be considered to be a good source of natural antioxidant for foods and functional food source against cancer and heart disease (Someya, S., Y. Yoshiki and K. Okubo, 2002).
Peels are often the waste part of various fruits. These wastes have not generally received much attention with a view to being used or recycled rather than discharged. This might be due to their unknown benefit of commercial application. The main by-product of the banana processing industry is the peel, which represents approximately 30% of the fruit. This by-product constitutes an environmental problem because it contains large quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus and its high water content makes it susceptible to modification by microorganisms (R. González-Montelongo et al., 2010). Interestingly, the peel and seed fractions of some fruits have higher antioxidant activity than the pulp fractions
The banana peel could be a potential being the source of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Banana peel is rich in phytochemical compounds, mainly antioxidants (R. González-Montelongo et al., 2010). Banana peels are commonly used as a home remedy for several skin problems including allergies, bruises and skin irritation. It can reduced several skin problems conditions including treating acne, treating poison ivy rashes irritation from mosquito bites, reducing bruises, getting rid of warts, treating acne and also managing wrinkles. Banana peel will not be instantly effective to manage the wrinkles, but the it help the skin to look more radiant, fresher and healthier.
Potential applications for banana peel depend on its chemical composition. Banana peel is rich in dietary fibre (50% on a dry matter (DW) basis), proteins (7% DW), essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and potassium. Banana peel is rich in phytochemical compounds, mainly antioxidants. The total amount of phenolic compounds in banana peel ranges from 0.90 to 3.0 g/100 g DW .
Someya et al. (2002) identified gallocatechin at a concentration of 160 mg/100 g DW. Ripe banana peel also contains other compounds, such as the anthocyanins delphinidin and cyaniding, and catecholamines. Furthermore, carotenoids, such as b-carotene, a-carotene and different xanthophylls, have been identified in banana peel in the range of 300-400 lg lutein equivalents/100 g, as well as sterols and triterpenes, such as b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, cycloeucalenol, cycloartenol, and 24-methylene cycloartanol. To date, only Someya et al. (2002) have evaluated the antioxidant activity in banana peel, measured as the effect on lipid autoxidation in relation to its gallocatechin content. (R. González-Montelongo et al., 2010)
Banana peels have been effectively used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Currently, silver nanoparticles is use in the production of antibacterial and antifungal agents biotechnology and bioengineering, textile engineering, water treatment, and silver-based consumer products that can be synthesized by several chemical, physical and biological method. Nanoparticle are one of the effective medium in against the fungal and bacteria culture such as C. albicans and E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis and Proteus mirabilis. These in turn, could be applied in the fields of microelectronics, biodiagnostics, sensing, and imaging as well as in designing newer drugs (A. Bankar et al.,2010).
The commonly used of banana peel in the silver nanoparticles production is due to the its composition. Banana peels are inherently rich in polymers such as lignin, hemicellulose and pectins could be used in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. (A. Bankar et al.,2010). Thus, banana peel is a potential new generation antimicrobials due to displayed by of antimicrobial activities silver nanoparticles that produced from the banana peels.2.2
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