Salinity is one of the serious environmental problems that cause osmotic stress and reduction in plant growth and crop productivity in irrigated areas of arid and semiarid regions. Salinity is a significant limiting factor in the agricultural productivity (Hasegawa et al., 1986). Soil salinity is one among the several environmental stresses causing drastic changes in the growth, physiology and metabolism of plants and threatening the cultivation of plants around the globe. Salt accumulation in...
Background: If lead is dissolved in nitric acid and then allowed to react with potassium iodide, an insoluble lead iodide compound is formed. The mass of iodide in the lead iodide compound can be calculated by deducting the initial mass of lead from the mass of the precipitate. From the experimental data one can calculate then the ratio of moles of lead to moles of iodine in the compound, and thus determine the empirical formula.Variables:ControlledIndependentDependentVolume of nitric acid...
Haemophilia figured prominently in the history of European royalty in the 19th and 20th centuries. Queen Victoria, through two of her five daughters (Princess Alice of the United Kingdom and Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom), passed the mutation to various royal houses across the continent, including the royal families of Spain, Germany and Russia. Queen Victoria had no ancestors with the condition but soon after the birth of her eighth child, Leopold, in 1853 it became evident that he...
Every people are generating wastes every day, either in low or high quantity. Most highly generated waste is the municipal solid wastes which comes from the residential area where peoples are stayed there. These generated waste is always ended up with buried them at the landfill site which is not environmentally method to be used. Nowadays, wastes have been used extensively in research works where the researcher tries to make use of the wastes to produce high-value added product, such as the...
Abstract The defining feature of eukaryotic cells is that they contain membrane-bound organelles and a 'true' nucleus. The endosymbiotic theory is based upon the idea that eukaryotic cells evolved in steps beginning with the stable incorporation of chemo-organotrophic and phototrophic symbionts from the domain bacteria. This essay reviewed the evidence that supports this theory. After investigating the molecular, physiological and morphological evidence, it is almost certain that chloroplasts...
Warfarin (in sodium form) is an oral coumarin analogue anticoagulant that competitively antagonises the effects vitamin K. Normally the drug takes 2-3 days for the drug to completely work. Heparin which is given intravenously is used if immediate and short acting anticoagulant is required. Primary use of drug is for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) but not used for cerebral artery thrombosis in first line therapy. Other uses include pulmonary embolism, atrial fibrillation which could lead to...
Vasospasm has been associated with glaucoma, but the mechanism have not been clearly elaborated. A potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, endothelin (ET)-1 were increase in patient with glaucoma compared to normal subject. They also found that glaucoma patient with acral vasospasm, more likely to show deterioration in visual fields after cooling than patient without acral vasospasm. In other words, glaucoma patient with evidence of vasospasm have the risk of worsening visual fields under cooling...
Recent studies have documented changes in vegetation due to invasive herbivores in the Andaman Islands. In this study we demonstrate that the change is large enough and rapid enough to be detected by remotely sensed data. Using freely available Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) imagery, we examined changes in vegetation cover due to presence invasive herbivores in the Andaman Islands. Two time periods were analysed using different types of imageries. Changes between 1985-95 and also...
Combinational logic simply describes digital circuits constructed from a number of standard logic gates. Theses circuits are 'static' in that they do not require clock inputs. You can think of a combinational digital circuit as a 'Black Box', that is a box (which contains the circuit) with a number of inputs and a number. See the diagram below: It is important to realise that the number of inputs and outputs is determined by the design problem only. For example a 3 to 8 line decoder will...
I was privileged enough to live with a family friend in Accra, Ghana for a period of time. Accra, Ghana is located along the west coast of the African continent. Unfortunately, this particular region has a number of viral infection incidences that have been deemed endemic such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Upon considering the list of endemic viruses as specified by the CDC website, I would like to expound on the yellow fever virus and its characteristics. That is, topics such as the...