India tops the list with the largest number of diabetic subjects in the world. According to the International diabetes Federation, the number of diabetics in india was around 40.9 million in 2006 and is expected to rise to 69.9 million by 2025.2 Type 2 DM patients are at risk of an ischemic cardiac event as patients without diabetes who have a history of myocardial infarction. Diabetes is considered a "coronary heart disease risk equivalent" and require aggressive reduction of risk...
Cancer is a disease in which a group of cell undergoes uncontrolled growth, invasion, and sometimes metastasis. These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited, and do not invade or metastasize. Most cancers form a tumor but some like leukemia. Cancer can be cause by the genetic makeup, cancer causing substance, problem of thee immune system, day to day environment, and the viruses. This disease is still not having any vaccine and it...
Depositional systems develop over time and shape the many fluvial, marginal-marine and submarine (deep sea) environments on the earth. Facies models have been developed to detail these depositional systems and show the types of features found in the different environments (some may be palaeo-environments). Terrestrial alluvial fans and deep-sea sand fans are just two of these facies models developed and are the subject of this analysis and discussion. Even though there are many differences...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection afflicts a great deal of the worldwide population with majority of the patients diagnosed having acute hepatitis C, develop chronic HCV infection. Infection ultimately leads to liver cirrhosis, hepatic failure or hepatocellular carcinoma, all of which are accountable for thousands of deaths with each progressing year. HCV was recognized in 1989 by immunoscreening an expression library by extracting serum from a patient with post-transfusion non-A, non-B...
Introduction Immunology is the study of methods of how the body defends itself from infections and foreign substances in the environment. The immune system is an adaptable and complex system which has evolved in humans to protect the body against invading pathogenic micro-organisms. An infectious organism which can cause a disease is known as a pathogen and the person or animal infected is called the host. The immune system needs to eliminate a pathogen without damaging the host which makes...
A variety of water quality models are available to determine pollutant transport in a stream. However, the choice of model is of paramount importance, as different models represent different river processes. There are a number of processes that occur in rivers; namely advection, diffusion, dispersion, re-aeration and decay. The model parameters therefore need to be calibrated in order to reflect what processes are occurring in the stream, as to adequately reflect the transport of solute. J.L....
Bacteria were some of the first forms of life that we know of and have continued to thrive throughout the numerous mass extinctions and changes the earth has undergone. They are found in almost every known environment on earth, from the deep ocean depths to the arctic tundra. One of the areas where bacteria are most prominent is in soil environments where the number of species found here are numerous. Bacteria living these soil environments provide a number of services to the ecosystem....
Bacteria are present in natural environments, both on biotic and abiotic surfaces, in the state of biofilm, where even more than one microbial species can be present at the same time. Because not all the available location are not colonized by such microbial consortia, it has been suggested that microbes possess suitable mechanisms to perceive specific features of the surrounding environment and their changes. Furthermore specific communication system could be involved in the spatial and...
Manganese limitation induces changes in the activity and in the organization of photosynthetic complexes in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC. Mn ions are essential for oxygen evolution activity in photoautotrophs. In this paper, we demonstrate the dynamic response of the photosynthetic apparatus to changes in Mn bioavailability in cyanobacteria. Cultures of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 could grow, without any observable effect on their physiology, on Mn concentrations as...
Amid the more accentuate increasing of the energy demand and of the insecurity in purveying with oil and natural gas, biofuels have started spark interest especially in countries that have agricultural areas that can be recovered in this way. Although the cultivation of energy plants acquired scale, a fundamental problem is looking for the answer. Are biofuels feasible in achieving energy independence for the State that promotes them so fiercely? Anticipating from the beginning our response,...