Carbohydrates consist of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with a ratio of hydrogen twice that of carbon and oxygen. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, cellulose and many other compounds found in living organisms. In their basic form, carbohydrates are simple sugars or monosaccharides. These simple sugars can combine with each other to form more complex carbohydrates. The combination of two simple sugars is a disaccharide. Carbohydrates consisting of two to ten simple sugars are...
Since the oil soluble compounds, mainly low molecular weight chelates of vanadium and nickel, were not removed by centrifuge method, an attempt was made to remove these by solvent extraction method. Solvents chosen for this study varied from non polar (n-C6, n-C7) to polar (ethyl acetate) and highly polar (ethyl acetate with 0.1 to 1.0 % H2SO4 or H3PO4). Properties of PDR are given in chapter-7. Petroleum distillation residue was deasphalted-demetallated by n-C5, n-C6 and C7 alkanes....
1.Introduction Congenital hydrocephalus is a severe congenital abnormality which is thought to occur in around 4.65 births per 10,000 in Europe (Garne, 2010). The condition has been recognised for thousands of years, with both Hippocrates (400 BC) and Galen (200 AD) giving early descriptions, however until around 50 years ago, it almost always resulted in death. Through the recent development of shunts to alleviate the symptoms, coupled with an improved awareness of the effects on the brain, we...
A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2010 to estimate Brachyspira species prevalence and to determine the risk factors associated with Brachyspira species colonisation in laying and broiler breeder flocks in the UK. In total 1175 pooled fresh chicken faecal samples were collected from 235 sheds on150 farms representing different production and housing types. Questionnaires were used to collect data on birds' breed, age, water treatment with bleach or acidifying agents,...
The prefix nano means a billionth of any unit of measurement. Any functional material having its size or at least one dimension in a billionth of a meter is termed as a nanostructured material or a nanomaterial. The use of these nanomaterials in the manufacture of useful devices and machines is known as nanotechnology. The ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" by physicist Richard Feynman at an...
DNA and RNA are the two types of genetic material. They carry the information that tells a cell what to do, kind of like blueprints. The strands are made of a special sugar, nitrogen bases, and phosphate groups. Most organisms are made of DNA, but a few viruses have RNA as their genetic material. The biological information contained in an organism is encoded in its DNA or RNA sequence. The RNA molecules are linear polymers have much more structural flexibility than DNA.2.2 RNA:RNA is very...
Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) (2n=24), commonly known as eggplant, aubergine or guinea squash, is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate parts of the world. It is a good source of vitamins and minerals, especially iron. Besides being used as an important vegetable, eggplant has been exploited extensively in traditional medicine. Genus Solanum, to which brinjal belongs is predominantly of Central and South American origin. The question of center of origin of brinjal has been...
The intestinal microbiota among vertebrates is known to be one of the most complex ecosystems on this planet, outnumbering by far the cells and genes in the human body. The gastrointestinal tract is rapidly colonized by these microbiota upon birth, who aid in the food degradation processes of the hosts intestinal tract. Mainly anaerobic Bacteria and to a lesser extend also Archaea, Eukarya and their viruses are present within the intestinal tract, because of the harsh food degrading conditions...
Mass spectrometry generally involves the procedure of measuring molecules. Finding the molecules weight in mass spectrometry is based upon the ion in a magnetic field. The mass to change ratio of the ion affects the motion. Mass spectrometry research is founded on the idea of the formation of different phases of ions (i.e gas and chemistry) . The basic parts of a mass spectrometer as Hoffman and Stroobant stated consist of the inlet, which transfers a sample into the vacuum of the mass...
Nonlinear static pushover and dynamic time-history analyses of the code compliant and PBPD frames were carried out by using PERFORM 3D program (CSI, 2007). A lumped "P-Delta column" with pin connections at the floor levels was added which enabled the model to capture the P-Delta effect. Stiffness, strength and cyclic degradation of moment-rotation behavior of plastic hinges were properly modeled to account for the pinched hysteretic behavior as was described in Chapter 5. The results...