ExxonMobil is the world's largest publicly traded international oil and gas company and was formed on November 30, 1999 by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. As at 2007, statistics shows ExxonMobil as the world's largest oil refiner in the world with an estimated daily refining capacity of 6.3 million barrels, a very attractive corporation for major investors and engineers worldwide.On Friday, March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez, three-year-old 987-foot tanker carrying 1.25 million barrels (50 million...
The DNA sequence codes for a particular gene which is then copied into a protein sequence code. Protein is found in every cell in human body and has a vital role in cell growth and tissue repair. The amino acids are the building blocks of proteins which are arranged in a specific order to determine the protein's shape and function.The incorrect amino acid sequence leads to harmful consequences because it can lead to the formation of faulty proteins which can cause disruption in metabolic and...
Atheromatic: Ultrasound Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Classification into Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Types Based on a combination of Higher Order Spectra, DWT and TextureAbstract-Characterization of carotid atheroscle­rosis and classification into either symptomatic or asymptomatic is crucial in terms of diagnosis and treatment planning for a range of cardiovascular diseases. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system (Atheromatic) which analyzes ultrasound images and...
The identity of a white powder inside a plastic bag and the material used to make the plastic bag were determined using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. It is possible to identify unknown compounds using IR spectroscopy because every compound absorbs infrared light at a different frequency. The identity of the unknown was identified as 4-Bromobenzoic acid, based on information obtained from the spectrum of samples of the powder. The material used to make the bag was found to be polyethylene based...
Swarm intelligence algorithms are taking the spotlight in the field of function optimization. In this research our attention centers on combining the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm with food foraging behavior of honey bees. The resulting algorithm (called HBF-PSO) and its variants are suitable for solving multimodal and dynamic optimization problems. We focus on the niching and speciation capabilities of these algorithms which allow them to locate and track multiple peaks in...
During both 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, four genotypes cotton were planted in the research field by the Crop System Research Laboratory of USDA-ARS (USDAARSCSRL) at Lubbock, TX. Three irrigation levels (well-irrigated, semi-irrigated, dry-land) controlled by underground dripping irrigation systems were applied to study the effects of drought stress on fiber developmental, structural and cell wall compositional changes; three replications were randomly designed for each level. Ten cotton...
. An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. According to a 2008 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$54 billion in sales each year, with 7% annual growth.There are two types of batteries: primary batteries, which can be used only once,...
Viruses are tiny agents that cause infections in a wide range of hosts including animals, plants, bacteria and other viruses. In particular, viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages, bacterio meaning "bacteria" in Greek and phage meaning "to eat". Bacteriophages are able to undergo lytic and lysogenic cycle to replicate; however, most undergo one or the other cycle to replicate. An example of a bacteriophage that is able to undergo both cycles is bacteriophage...
Haemopoiesis also known as haematopoiesis located in bone marrow section of an adults and lymphatic tissue is the process of production of blood cells and platelets which continues throughout life, replacing aged cells which are removed from the circulation by which immature precursor cells expand to mature blood cells. This process thesis and how it works is known as monophyletic theory. The cellular blood components are precursor to haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that forms blood cells and...
One of the advantages of conducting laboratory studies is that they allow researchers to control a range of conditions that could potentially impact the outcome of a study. Environmental factors, water quality, loading rate, chemical exposure, study animals, animal husbandry and health can all be manipulated more easily to identify actual treatment effects in laboratory studies.3.1.1 The objective of (Hayes et al. 2002a) study was to find whether atrazine interfere with metamorphosis and sex...