Arabidopsis thaliana is used as a model organism for analyzing genetic and biochemical process in higher plants. Due to its small genome size (Approximately 100 Mb) and availability, Arabidopsis is used as a model plant for most of the experiments. In this experiment we have analyzed the function and position of ERECTA gene with respect to expression of trait and genotyping. Genotyping was carried out using PCR analysis. The mapping was done for the whole genome of Arabidopsis RIL's using the...
In the past three decade, the progress in understanding the complex pathways of pathophysiology of asthma is as a result of collaboration from various interdisciplinary of physiologists, pathologists, immunologists, allergists. Occupational asthma occurs as a result of various exposure to sensitizing agent particularly in a work-related environment rather than stimuli exposed to outside workplace. Occupational asthma has been attributed as the cause of about 12% of adult asthma and also in...
Introduction Persistent pollutants from the environment cause impairments in animals and plants and in severe cases produce irreversible damage to individuals, population community and ecosystem. These irreparable changes begin in individuals as very mild changes (if the dosage of the pollutant is not very acute) and then advance to a stage where there is no retrieval from it. In the beginning stages all the affected individuals show some signals and symptoms which can be read and assessed...
Streptomycete produce antibiotics which are used for clinical treatments and prove beneficial for us. At the same time they also provide resistance to the antibiotics that are produced by them and therefore they transfer resistance to pathogenic organisms although they themselves are non pathogenic. This results in cases where the medical cases become untreatable as the organism causing the disease develops resistance to the antibiotic that is used in its treatment. Hence there is an urgent...
A transgenic organism is an organism that has had it genome manipulated, using recombinant DNA techniques to introduce new characteristics into the organism that was not there previously, these characteristics are passed down to the offspring and will continue though the gene pool.These genetically modified organisms are used in the search to find new cures for difficult diseases or the increase in production yields of crops and other organic related products that feed and improve our...
Environmental hazards of GMOs can be caused by direct or indirect effects of the GMOs themselves or by transfer of genetic material to other organisms-The spread of transgenes through GM pollen diffusion and its environmental impact after hybridization with closely related wild species or subspecies through introgressive hybridization or horizontal gene transfer-Horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to soil microbes- The impact of insecticide proteins released into the soil by...
This is very important in the interruption of chain of transmission of virus, could reach populations where other interventions are not sufficiently effective & providing new information on the possible use of vaccines as therapeutic interventions.(2) Possible HIV Vaccine Strategies Experimental vaccines do not use whole or live HIV , cannot cause HIV or AIDS & should produce either 0)"antibodies or 0)"cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) to fight infection.(3) Types of Experimental...
Malaria is an insect-borne disease and a critical health issue as it is currently endemic in 100 over countries, and it is accounted for approximately 300 to 500 millions of clinical cases globally1-[8]. It is preventable and treatable, yet approximately one million of people die from this disease each year, most of them live in the impoverished countries (income level are 33% less than similar countries than are free from this disease). What is malaria? It is a dangerous disease that is...
Fermentation is the anaerobic energy acquiring process in which organic substances are oxidized by other substances. In fermentation, ATP is synthesized by substrate level phosphorylation.In respiration, organic substances are oxidized by molecular oxygen or sometimes by inorganic substances such as nitrate and sulphate. Thus ATP is formed by compiling to electron transfer as well as by substrate level phosphorylation. In photosynthesis, light energy is changed into the energy necessary for...
This project will begin by presenting an extensive biography of Sir Arnold Fisher. He was a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science [Hald. P]. Therefore it is vitally important to acknowledge his life, which rewarded statistics, its identity.Many of the basic ideas of statistics will be discussed which are required to understand statistical estimation. When scientists carry out experiments they use the observed data obtained from the random...