Osteoporosis has dramatically increased in the last few years and is a significant health problem. There is a growing recognition that osteoporosis is a disease that affects men and not only women.Hip and vertebral fractures result in great morbidity and mortality for both men and women. Therefore, an increase awareness of risk factors for osteoporosis is vital to reduce the morbidity and mortality, along with early diagnosis and treatment.This study was conducted to find out whether...
In this essay I will provide uses of DNA testing, explain the structure and location of DNA. I will discuss the replication sequence of DNA, mutations in gene sequence, and its molecular basis of heredity. I will summarize the function of, RNA, protein, chromosomes, and genes, as well as how genes replicate during sexual reproduction.There are many applications for genetic testing besides the screening for genetic defects. Many people interested in their family ancestry can trace their...
The investigation involved experiments to determine the pharmacological properties of a range of reference drugs, and one unknown drug. This information can be used to help our understanding of how drugs act upon different receptor sites, and how they interact with other drugs. The effects of agonists were investigated, along with how they are affected by antagonists. From investigating the reproducibility, mimicry and effects of antagonism on the reference drugs and the unknown drug, A3, it...
Doctors have yet to discover what exactly causes Guillain Barre Syndrome but there are a few conditions that can trigger it. "We don't know for certain but in two- thirds of cases, patients experience the onset of GBS signs and symptoms one to three weeks after a acute viral infection that was respiratory or gastrointestinal in origin, leading most researchers to believe that GBS may result from an autoimmune response". (Simmons, S 2010,). It may also occur with patients with Lupus...
Chondrocytes are the first skeleton-specific cell type to appear during development and are required for the longitudinal growth of the skeleton. Chondrocytes are also needed in joints to allow mobility of various skeletal elements. Cartilage matrix is composed of collagens and proteoglycans, with sparse populations of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes are the growth plate forming cells in the long bones and thus, act in the bone formation processes. Chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification are...
With the introduction of interferin-β1b in 1993 as the first FDA-approved treatment for multiple sclerosis, the era of treatment of this incurable disease began and its natural course was permanently changed. Currently, seven different treatments for patients with multiple sclerosis with different mechanisms of action and dissimilar side effects profile exist. In addition, a large number of clinical trials are being conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of various experimental agents...
Due to increasing developments in the biotechnological processing and bioreactor industry, there has also been an increase in the number of bioreactors currently available (See Fig. 1) (Oksman-Caldentey et al., 2002). The main function of a properly designed bioreactor is to provide a controlled environmental condition at which microorganisms can be able to perform the required reactions and transformations in the most optimum efficiency possible and achieve optimum growth and/or product...
Generally, the major problem encountered in microencapsulation of water soluble drugs as well as core (contains components with different solubilities) is the core partition effect. Several studies conducted by using different methods were highlighted the important roles in resolving the core partition effect (as explained in details in introduction, section1.?.?). Our previous work demonstrated the disability of the simple coacervation method to encapsulate the water soluble drugs...
Plants are exploited as a source of food and shelter by a wide range of parasites, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, insects and even other plants. They have evolved mechanisms of antimicrobial defence which are either constitutive or inducible. Plants are resistant to most pathogens in their environment, as they are not host plants for particular pathogen or are host plants, but hold on resistance genes, allowing them to recognize specifically distinct pathogen races (Scheel,...
Introduction: All living things require energy in carrying out activities. The process by which energy is made available from nutrient of cells is called cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the controlled release of energy, in the form of ATP from organic compounds in cells.Respiration occur under two conditions which is with the presence of oxygen and without the presence of oxygen. If there is presence of oxygen, then the process is called aerobic respiration. However, if there is...