Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the causative agent of genital herpes and is a fairly common virus around the world that affects about 40 to 60 million people in the USA ("Initiative for Vaccine Research"). It is a double stranded DNA virus and it has an envelope. It has the ability to establish a lifelong latency in neural ganglia and be reactivated when conditions are appropriate. While the virus can never be cleared from the body, there are antiviral medications that can...
Control release dosage form (CRDF) is the one which delivers the therapeutic agents at a predetermined rate for a specified period of time.The basic principle behind the generation of controlled release dosage is to modify the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in such a way that which help to improve utility of a drug by maximum decrease in side effects and cure or control the disease in shortest period of time by using very less quantity of drug administered by most...
In this essay the inheritance, molecular and biochemical defects of Familial hypercholesterolemia is going to be discussed. The first part of the essay will be a brief overview of the disease and its symptoms. The main component of the essay is going to cover the inheritance, typical pedigree and incidence of the disease. Then the molecular genetics of the disease along with the molecular biology and the molecular defects (i.e. the consequences of the mutation) will be explored. Methods of...
In earth sciences essentially all inverse problems are nonlinear and involve a large number of unknown parameters. In practice, the application of analytical inversion or optimization techniques may be quite restrictive. Most analytical methods are local in nature and rely on a linearized form of the problem, adopting an iterative procedure using partial derivatives to improve an initial model. The final solution depends on the initial model and is hence prone to entrapment in local misfit...
Major Histocompability Complex was initially discovered for their role in transplantation and responses to tumours, showing them as genetically vital in regulating immune responses (Shi et al., 2008). MHC in reality refers to a region of DNA spanning of 4 million base pair, and contains over 100 genes (figure 1.)MHC genes are separated into three classes based on the proteins they encode, class I, class II and class III. The class III encodes immune components proteins like complements (C4,...
The ash content of a crude drug is generally taken to be the residue remaining after incineration. It usually represents the inorganic salts naturally occurring in the drug and adhering to it, but it may also include inorganic matter added for the purpose of adulteration. There is a considerable difference varies within narrow limits in the case of the same individual drug. Hence an ash determination furnishes a basis for judging the identity and cleanliness of a drug and gives information...
Although most of the metallic constituents of crude oil are concentrated in the residues, some of the organometallic compounds are actually volatilized at refinery distillation temperatures and appear in the feed to the FCC cracking units. Metal contaminants in the feedstock tend to deposit on the matrix of FCC catalysts wherein they catalyze the combustion of carbon monoxide. Generally, only a portion of the total (25-30%) deposited metal is active. Nickel in FCC feed and iron scale are...
Clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer disease first established about 25 years ago. It is the most common form of dementia; a degenerative disease of the cortex, with gradual onset mostly affecting age group 40-90 year old people, and its incidence increases with increasing age. Despite the recent excitements in the identification of AD-related biomarkers, neuropsychological assessment remains a critical component of evaluation [1]. 5.1 million people in America suffer from Alzheimer...
Drug addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disorder that is characterized by compulsive, uncontrollable drug taking and drug seeking behaviour that persists despite adverse consequences, such as the emergence of negative behavioral states (e.g. anxiety, dysphoria) and cognitive deficits (Koob and Le Moal, 2008).Drug abuse and addiction pose a huge problem for the modern world; placing an enormous medical, financial and social burden on all levels of society. In fact the 2012 World...
Modeling of photocatalytic degradation of nonylphenol (NP), an endocrine disrupter and toxic compound, has been investigated in synthetic aqueous solutions containing ZnO nanoparticles as semiconductor using multivariate approach. In this regard, a full factorial experimental design was performed in order to study the main variables affecting the degradation process as well as their most significant interactions. Initial NP concentrations ([NP]0) of 0.454 to 9.08 μM, were treated with...