Radiotherapy makes use of various equipments to carry out its role in therapeutic medication of patients with tumours or other disease. One of these equipments is the linear accelerator.Wideroe showed in the year 1928 that it is possible to accelerate electrons using a tube through application of voltage to various segments of the tube. As a result, the electrons passing the hollow tube created an electric field which was accelerated in the course of passage. The linear accelerator was...
In this chapter, an introduction to the Microstrip Patch Antenna is followed by its advantages and disadvantages. Next, some feed modeling techniques are discussed. Finally, a detailed explanation of Microstrip patch antenna analysis and its theory are discussed, and also the working mechanism is explained 2.1 Introduction The concept of microstrip patch antennas dates back to 1950s but it was not until 1970 that serious attention was paid to development of printed circuit technology,...
The rapid development of nanoscience in recent years led to the versatile usages of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) nano-structures. And the metal oxides are crystalline consisting of a metal cation and an oxide anion. It is very fascinating to apply the Q1D nanotechnology to the sort of structure to produce a series of materials with well constructed chemical composition, surface terminations, avoiding dislocation and other disadvantages. This material presents a very different physical...
A specific statistical analysis is applied on Sahel precipitation anomaly measurements, during the period 1900 - 2010. The conclusions obtained show persistent long-range power-law self-similarity for the time series of the rainfall anomalies and a semi-log distribution for the anomalies located over the mode of the data. It should be emphasized that these findings could substantially contribute to the forecasting of the precipitation index which is of crucial importance for the simulation of...
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a condition which is commonly characterised by two separate entities; Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). This essay will closely look at the two and discuss the differences between them and their management.Both forms of inflammatory bowel disease have similar features and they primarily affect the proper functioning of the gut or intestinal lining.This review will go into detail about the epidemiology and aetiology of the disease as well as...
Food additives have various useful functions which most people take for granted. Not all food additives are dangerous. They are used for several reasons, because they are convenient and can actually be beneficial. Although there are studies showing that food additives may be harmful, there are still some additives that have some nutritional value. These chemical substances are being added to the food mainly because of preservation, enhancing the color and flavor, and making it more appealing....
Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. Cell maintains homeostasis by regulating many attributes of cellular behavior such as growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Any mutations in the normal cell results in increase or decrease in the expression of genes that maintain homeostasis. This aberrant gene expression interferes with normal apoptotic pathway of the cell, leading to cancer. As per the CRUK report (July 2010), 1 in 4 deaths caused in UK are due to cancer...
Solubility studies were aimed at identifying suitable vehicles that possess good solubilizing capacity on ATR. Oil can solubilize the lipophilic drug in a specific amount [35]. It is the main excipient because it can facilitate self-emulsification and increase the fraction of lipophilic drug transported via the intestinal lymphatic system, thereby increasing absorption from the GI tract [22].Sefsol 218 was selected as oil phase due to its highest solubilization (43.78±1.6 mg/ml) of ATR...
The 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Heeger, Mac Diarmid and Shirakawa for their work in 1977 on polyacetylene. [1] Whilst this was not the birth of organic electronics, their work : "Synthesis of electrically conducting organic poylmers : Halogen derivatives of polyacetylene" revolutionised this field and paved the way for waves of research into conductive polymers. They showed that by doping polyacetylene (normally a black powder) with a halogen they could create a film...
It is located between the Republic of China and Mongolia. It is a cold desert getting as low as -47oC and as high as 33.9oC. During the winter, it is extremely dry and will have icy sandstorms and snowstorms. It has many fossils and is home to many animals and species of animals. The desert is expanding in a process called desertification. Average precipitation is less than 100mm but some areas only get rain once every two or three years. Winds can get up to 140 km/h in the Spring.The...