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This review focuses on the most recent findings about the role of leptin in onset, development, clinical manifestations and outcomes of multiple sclerosis and applications of a possible leptin antagonist for multiple sclerosis patients and strategies for designing such an antagonist. Organization: After an introduction to leptin , we will focus on its role in the immune system and autoimmunity. Afterwards we will review the literature around leptin and MS and finally will discuss the relevant...
The melting points were taken in open capillary tube method. The IR spectra of the compounds were record on ABB Bomem FT-IR spectrometer MB 104 IR spectra recorded with potassium bromide pellets. The 1H-NMR spectra of synthesized compounds were recorded on instrument BRUKER NMR spectrometer in DMSO. The Mass spectra of synthesized compound were recorded JEOL GCmate. TLC method was used to check purity of compounds. TLC plates are Pre -coated Silica gel (HF254-200 mesh) aluminum plates using...
When mutations occur in the genes of a normal cell the outcome can usually be the development of cancer. These mutations that cause genes to become defective occur by exposure to environmental and chemical elements such as UV exposure ,unhealthy diet, excessive narcotic and depressants use exposure to radiation and prolonged chronic exposure to carcinogenic chemicals i.e. formaldehyde, benzene, etc. Cancer also may occur genetically as dormant genes that are passed down from parent to child,...
A cell is a dynamic and a complex structure surrounded by a membrane known as the plasma membrane. This acts like a barrier between the inside of the cell and the outside resulting in different chemical environments on the two sides. The cell membrane is not restricted to the outer surface but is also present inside surrounding the organelles. These biological membranes have played a crucial role in the evolution from prokaryotes to multicellular eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, there is only one...
The following is a section on the chicory plant, which can be a fine substitute for coffee. This will describe the characteristics of this plant. Introduction Chicory is a familiar wild plant found mainly in the calcareous soils of Northern Europe. It has been traditionally cultivated in European agriculture as a grassland herb, as a root crop to produce a coffee substitute, or as a vegetable in which the young shoots are eaten. This is both a hardy biennial and a short-lived perennial...
Clustering analysis identifies and groups the data, where each cluster consists of similar objects and dissimilar to objects of other clusters. For high quality clusters, the inter-cluster similarity is low and the intracluster similarity is high (Mirkin 1996; Rokach and Maimon 2005; Xu and Wunsch 2005). Clustering algorithms can be classified into two categories: hierarchical clustering and partitional clustering.Swarm intelligence (SI) (E. Bonabeau et al. 1999; A. Abraham et al. 2006) is the...
Our bodies’ requirement for energy is determined by our size, shape and tissue composition; in addition age, gender and our level of physical activity play important roles. Total energy expenditure is made up of resting energy expenditure (REE), which accounts for approximately two-thirds that of an adult, with variable components as a result of physical activity and the thermogenic effect of digestion, absorption and storage of food. The main determinant of REE is the volume of...
Purified memory CD4 T cells from 3 healthy young persons (20 to 35 years old) and 3 healthy elderly persons (65 to 85 years old) were stimulated with TSST-1 plus DC isolated from a young adult. The Cells for RNA extraction were harvested at hours 0, 16, 40 and 72 and analyzed using Affymetrix U133A GeneChip arrays. By a comprehensive analysis of gene expression, DUSP4 as one of the genes most highly induced after stimulation was found that keeping a high level in the T cells from old persons in...
When my mom was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in mid-2002, she went through what one would probably describe as a "physical rollercoaster.  What used to be energy-packed days, which she would spend doing errands, were now wasted away at home, resting. Going up the short flight of stairs at home suddenly became a chore for her, and surprisingly, descending it also caused some strain.  She constantly felt hot, even when she was inside an air conditioned room or in front of an electric fan....
Meningitis is a disease that occurs by having inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and the spinal cord, and this protective membrane is called the meninges. Inflammation of the meninges can be caused by infection, usually either through bacteria, virus, or parasites; with bacterial infection being the most serious of the conditions.Bacterial meningitis varies according to different age groups. The most common type of bacterial meningitis in newborn babies is usually...