Introduction The Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered a worldwide pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) with major social and economic consequences. Since its discovery in 1981, HIV has become a burden globally with an estimate of 25 million people being killed to date. (WHO Annual Epidemic HIV Estimates). In terms of epidemiology, the prevalence has increased in people who reside in the Sub Saharan Africa and according to current estimates, HIV is set to infect 23 million...
Influenza A virus is known in the worldwide as an acute contagious viral infectious disease and respiratory tract disease that occur as a result of infection. Flu can cause mild to severe sickness, and can be lethal. Certain people, such as elder people and people with health conditions, are at a high risk for serious problems from the flu virus. The influenza or the flu is caused by RNA viruses which belong to Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. There are three types of flu viruses infect...
This assignment shall attempt to highlight the cellular pathways involved in mechanics of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Furthermore it shall relate the pathological processes of ALS to the symptoms experienced by the sufferers of this disease. There will then be an in-depth analysis assessing the new management and experimental therapeutic strategies that are being made available, or being researched with regards to the treatment of patients with ALS. Lastly they will be an appreciation...
Organic molecules are the chemicals of life that are found in, and produced by, living organisms. Organic compounds are those that have carbon atoms, inorganic molecules don't have these carbon-hydrogen bonds. There are four main classes of organic molecules are: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.Carbohydrates have a great responsible in our lives. Carbohydrates are used for storing and transporting energy, maintaining the structure of plants and animals, and in helping the...
Given a regulatory pathway, a system consisting of some proteins and their relations, can we predict its biological function, i.e. classify it into correct pathway class? This is a fundamental problem in systems biology and proteomics. It is also a great challenge although much information of regulatory pathway has been collected and stored in some public database during the past decade. The main reason is that regulatory pathway is so complex that we still poorly understand it and do not know...
Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile plant materials, known as essential oils, and other aromatic compounds for the purpose of altering a persons mood, cognitive function or health. (Aromatherapy)Since some essential oils have confirmed anti-microbial actions, so that it has been suggested they may be useful for the treatment of infectious diseases. (Aromatherapy)Essential oils can be used in household as some oils act as a natural insect repellent and pesticide....
Calf fattening is all-inclusive activity, related to meet animal's care, housing, medication, feeding and management. It is defined as all those aspects and activities relating to raising of calves for meat purpose. Before making the decision, whether to invest in the livestock farming or not, one should carefully analyze the associated risk factors. A SWOT analysis can help in analyzing these factors, which can play important role in making the decision.Since beef demand is increasing day by...
A response surface methodology was used for the optimization of extra cellular laccase production using Pleurotus sp. Central composite experimental design was applied in the analysis of results and this procedure required limited number of experiments performed while providing possible interactions of selected components. Optimum values of tested variables for the maximum laccase production were; mannitol 4.8gm/l, beef extract 3gm/l and pH 6.2 and copper sulphate 4 mg/l, the maximum laccase...
Under certain conditions, α-cells can produce physiologically significant amounts of GLP-1 (rather than glucagon) by changes in its expression of prohormone converting enzymes. This locally produced GLP-1 can have important intra-islet effects including the stimulation of insulin secretion, inhibition of glucagon and increase in β-cell mass, mediated by enhancement of proliferation and protection from apoptosis. Similarly, CCK is produced by islets, this too may play an important...
Briefly review the cause and effect of β-thalassemia, outlining the symptoms of the disease.Beta-thalassemia is a blood disorder where a reduction in beta haemoglobin production is seen. It is caused by mutations in the HBB gene on chromosome 11.Haemoglobin consists of two alpha and two beta globin molecules. The lack of beta haemoglobin in thalassemia causes alpha globin to accumulate in the red blood cells and is unable to bind with anything leading to low production of haemoglobin. The...