What should one be scared of in life? Well fear is a very rational reaction to danger and one of the most deadly bacterium in the world is the bacillus anthrax. Answering the threat of anthrax, one has to be very careful in how they phrase the response. Anthrax is just a name of a disease. However, in order to know just what anthrax is you have to look a little deeper than that. Anthrax is of course a deadly disease as previously stated but its proper name and the bacteria that it comes...
Enzymes are proteins that function as catalysts for biological reactions. A catalyst is a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any net change. The types of chemical reactions that can be catalyzed by proteins alone are limited by the chemical properties of the functional groups found in the side chains of nine amino acids:1 the imidazole ring of histidine, the carboxyl groups of glutamate and aspartate, the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine, and tyrosine,...
Plant tissue culture, the growth of plant cells outside an intact plant, is a technique essential in many areas of the plant sciences. Cultures of individual or groups of plant cells, and whole organs, contribute to understanding both fundamental and applied science. It relies on maintaining plant cells in aseptic conditions on a suitable nutrient medium. The culture can be sustained as a mass of undifferentiated cells for an extended period of time, or regenerated into whole plants. ...
With well established features of signal peptide and through the identification of lipobox containing invariant cysteine, bioinformatic analysis of these signal peptides is able to identify potential lipoproteins in Gram-positive bacteria. Based on the sequence analysis of signal peptides of Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, it was noted that lipoprotein signal peptides tend to be shorter that secretory signal peptides which indicate that the c-region is shorter and contains...
Schematic of the zinc finger nucleases as suggested by Miller et al. The ringed struture is formed by the conserved amino acid residues which include the Cys and His ligands, the negatively charged As11 and the hydrophobic Tyr6, Phe17 and Leu23. The black circles in this image were proposed to be the most probable DNA binding sites. Berg (1988) proposed a model for the structure of the nuclease suggesting that it consist of a β-sheet containing two cysteine residues which form a loop and...
RITUXIMAB is indicated for the cases of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma can be defined as any of large group of cancers of lymphocytes (white blood cells). Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur at any age and are often marked by lymph nodes that are larger than normal, fever, and weight loss. There are many different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These types can be divided into aggressive (fast-growing) and indolent (slow-growing)...
Nanoemulsions originally developed as microbiocidal materials by the Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences, also called as ultrafine emulsions (Ref 1) submicron emulsions (Ref 2) and mini emulsions (Ref 3) are non toxic, isotropic mixture of water and oil with mean droplet size less than 25% of wavelength of visible light. Unlike inhomogeneous microemulsions whose repulsive droplets cream at height 1m, the volume fraction of repulsive nanoemulsions remains...
Embryonic stem cells are unspecialised cells that have the ability under certain conditions to create any of the different types of tissue in early human growth and can renew themselves through cell division1. The ability of stem cells to specialise into over 220 types of cells in the adult human body is what interests scientists and provides potential to create a variety of clinical therapies to cure disease2. Embryonic stem cells are harvested from fertilised human embryos that have either...
Although the relation between temperature and mortality has been studied for many decades public health threat due to elevated temperature did not really become recognized as an issue with considerable magnitude until the late 1980s. To date, there is coherent evidence that air pollution has short-term effects on mortality. Increased atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases, of which CO2 is the most important, may increase the average temperature by 2-5.5 degrees (Celsius) by the end of...
Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent throughout the world and is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. Atherosclerosis results from the interaction of environmental and genetic risk factors, including age, sedentary life style, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. About 50% of susceptibility to cardiovascular disease is genetic including polymorphisms affecting risk factors . Despite widely prescribed drugs such as statins to...