Gas chromatography (GC) is a technique used to separate mixtures of highly volatile liquids. As in all chromatographic methods, the mobile phase is a gas (Hydrogen or Helium) that carries the components of the mixture over a stationary phase. In GC, the stationary phase is a column packed with silica or coated with a high boiling point liquid. The components of the mixture leave the column in order of volatility, the most volatile first. About a micro-liter of the sample is injected to the GC...
Cells have enormous innate ability to catalyze thousands of reactions but only a subset of such biochemical reactions are required at any given time. In order to save energy and resources, the cell regulates these reactions such that only those necessary are carried out. Proteins are known to be responsible for most of the functional and structural components and requirements of life. However, RNAs have been shown to possess the capacity to perform such functions as well. Riboswitches...
Monoclonal antibodies are used to detect serum antigens associated with malignancies. The tumor markers are most useful for monitoring response to therapy and detecting early relapse. Tumor markers are special molecules released by tumor cells, found in high levels in patients with malignancies. Each tumor marker is organ specific and is elevated in specific type of malignancy and its level in circulating blood provide a clue about the type and severity of the disease. The blood level is very...
The presence of sulfate in the rhizosphere inhibits selenate uptake and accumulation, suggesting direct competition between selenate and sulfate for transport or repression of transcription of sulfate transporter genes by sulfate and its metabolites (Vidmar et al. 2000; White et al. 2004). In contrast to this antagonistic relation a synergistic relationship between S and Se has been reported. Studies in onions, rice and wheat have shown that low concentrations of Se enhanced S uptake and...
This present invention relates to an engineered recombinant. In more particular, the present invention relates to an engineered recombinant of a hemolysin transport system for an improved heterologous protein secretion.Background of The InventionGram-negative bacteria secrete a wide range of proteins through the inner membrane and the outer membrane. Several pathways as involved for the protein secretion are generally grouped into sec-dependent and sec-independent pathways. The type I secretion...
Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke like episodes - abbreviated to MEALS - is one of the family of mitochondrial encephalopathies, which also include MERRF, and Leber's Optic Hereditary Atrophy. A feature of this disease is that they are caused by defects in mitochondrial genome which is inherited purely from the female parent. The disease can manifest in both sexes. PRESENTATION MELAS is condition that affects many parts of the body, mainly the brain and nervous system...
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung which can result from infection with particular bacteria, viruses or other organisms. It is characterised by lung parenchyma inflammation and the filling of the air-filled sacs of the lung (alveoli) with fluid resulting in a decrease in elasticity which leads to inefficient gas exchange. In excess of 5 million cases of infectious pneumonia are estimated to occur annually in the US resulting in more than 1 million hospitalizations. The onset of...
Cancer is a generic term used to describe a group of diseases which has been mutated from a single cell. These cells differentiate uncontrollably as cell proliferation occurs continuously and spread to other parts of the body (Gabriel, 2007; Macdonald, Ford and Casson, 2004). According to Starr and McMillan (2008), there are two types of tumors, one is the benign tumors which is enclosed within a capsule made up of fibrous or connective tissues and does not spread to other parts of the body....
Sea buckthorn is a wild shrub producing berries, widely found in Asia and Europe. Besides naturally growing plants, sea buckthorn hybrids of different subspecies are cultivated in order to prevent desertification, since it forms strong root and it is resistant to extreme temperature, drought and poor soil [2]. There is a long tradition in Asia for using sea buckthorn berries in folk medicine. It was demonstrated that the oils extracted from flesh and seeds have regenerating, anti-inflammatory,...
Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was discovered in the tissues of prostate cancer cells and in patients who suffer Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The search for its potential role in these diseases has given it much attention in the scientific community and investigating its nature can only lead to significant gains for both the scientific community and the public. Here, I investigate XMVR's structure, composition, lifecycle, and impact and role in prostate cancer and CFS....