Waste water disposal and treatment is a necessary utility for the civilised world. The earliest recorded evidences of waste water disposal systems are from the Bronze Age i.e. the Indus valley civilization. They had a fully functional running water and underground sewage system. The Romans had an open sewer system and the structures still exist as an evidence of human endeavours to supply safe water, remove wastes from water, and to protect public health. Fig-1 Early Sewer systems. Courtesy-...
The World Health Organization defines diabetes as a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Diabetes mellitus, more commonly referred to as diabetes affects around 250 million people worldwide, although this number is expected to be considerably higher because "at least 50 percent of all people with diabetes are unaware of their condition" (Loughrey, 2008). Previously, it was...
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a non-invasive technique that can be used to measure the concentrations of different low-molecular weight chemicals. It differs from conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in that spectra provide physiological and chemical information instead of anatomy. The high diagnostic specificity of MRS enables the biochemical changes that accompany various neurological disorders to be detected, as well as disease characterization, sometimes diagnosis, and monitoring....
Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is produced by the burning of natural products. Its molecular formula is C6H6. Benzene is a component of products extracted from coal and petroleum and is found in gasoline and other fuels. Benzene is a colourless liquid at room temperature and its density is 0.87 g/cm3 at 20oC. It has a relatively low boiling point, a high vapour pressure, highly flammable, can evaporate into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. It is mainly used in...
Enabling the formulation and topical delivery of a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy of skin cancer: a delivery system to avoid self-aggregation and to improve in vitro and in vivo skin delivery of a phthalocyanine derivative ABSTRACT The high hydrophobicity and aggregation phenomena exhibited by the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (ZnPcSO4) make it difficult for this compound to penetrate the skin and reduce the compound's photodynamic efficacy. A microemulsion (ME)...
Human ageing can be defined as the collection of changes that render human beings progressively more likely to die hence a decline in physiological efficiency and ability to respond to stress and an increase in homeostatic imbalance and an increased risk of ageing-associated diseases. It is a syndrome of changes that are deleterious, progressive, universal and thus far irreversible. Ageing damage occurs to molecules (DNA, proteins, lipids), to cells and to organs thus affecting the whole...
ANCA-associated vasculitides is the result of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). This systemic vasculitis of small vessels is caused by circulating autoantibodies against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes. Examples of ANCA-associated vasculitides are Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome. The small vessels in the respiratory tract and the kidneys are mainly affected in Wegener's granulomatosis by the...
Selective breeding is no new concept for people. Since the early years, we have been selectively choosing desirable traits in the food we grow. Nowadays however it is even more advanced; we have succeeded in genetically modifying our plants. No longer do plant breeders have to produce their flowering plants by just selecting the specific seed from a small pool of choices, we can create our own specialised seed instead. We have come so far that these foods are appearing on shelves all around us;...
The translocator protein (18kDa) (TSPO) formerly known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor. One of the proteins which may mediate MTP is TSPO but its physiological role remains unclear except for in steroidogenesis specific tissues. This literary review is going to concentrate on TSPO mediated cholesterol transport, mitochondrial permeability regulation, cardioprotective and neuroprotective function. on… by analysisng information obtained about TSPO through the ffects its...
A discrete-time feedback system utilizes a controller which obtains information of the error signal at regular intervals of duration T seconds, where T is the sampling time interval as opposed to the continuous-time feedback system whose controller obtains this information continuously. A continuous-time signal can be transformed into a discrete-time signal and vice versa with the use of analogue-digital (A/D) and digital-analogue (D/A) converters. Essentially, a digital control system consists...