Biology Is The Science Of Life.How Are Living Things Organized? All living things live in a hierarchical order that starts on the cellular level and ends on the population level, with different properties at each level known as emergent properties. What Are The Properties Of Life? All living things must meet certain characteristics in order to be considered living. These include: cellular organization, order, sensitivity, growth, development and reproduction, energy utilization, evolutionary...
There are three Influenza viruses groups, A, B and C, which are part of the Orthomyxoviridae family of (-) strand RNA viruses. These viruses are segmented containing 8 separate gene segments within a nucleocapsid protein (Neumann, G. et al. 2009). The 8 genes in the influenza viral genome encode 11 proteins: two nonstructural proteins (NS1 and NS2), four transcriptase proteins (PB1, PB2, PB1-F2, and PA), two surface glycoproteins (HA and NA), two matrix proteins (M1 and M2) and one...
Chemical classification can be identified using three ways; namely chemical properties, usage and physical form. This physical form known as particulate matter can be recognized using their physical properties such as dust, mist, fumes, gases and vapour. This chapter will look at some particulate matter that can pose health hazard. The occupational disease and condition associated with inhalation of these particulate matters will be discussed with relation between particle size and...
HIV is a global pandemic. Worldwide, it is claimed there are more than 33.3 (31.4-35.3) million people who live with HIV-1 and, to date, it is estimated that 25 million people have died from HIV-1. Only 5 years ago, the incidence rate of HIV-1 infection was 4.1 million and death from AIDS was 2.8 million. The primary mode of transmission is through heterosexual transmission; this equates to 85% of all HIV-1 infections. Although a global pandemic, the highest rates of new HIV-1 infection still...
Barium enema, or better known (GI) examination, is a test to check the large intestine (colon and rectum). The test is used to help diagnose diseases and other problems affecting the large intestine. To view the large intestine is filled with contrast material containing barium. It can highlight specific areas on the desired section and produce a clearer image. This test is done by inserting a contrast material through the tube into the anus. Barium will be out of the body with the stool. Enema...
The Arabidopsis thaliana is a model organism used to study plant processes. In this paper the Eucalyptus CsID gene is investigated. Cellulose is a major component in plant cell walls. Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthase (CesA) genes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to transform Arabidopsis plants in the floral dip method. Transformed plants are selected by antibiotic resistance using hygromycin. The GUS reporter system makes identification of transgenic plants simple. GUS staining...
The selection and hypermutation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) takes place in germinal center (GCs). The presence of antigen triggers the B cell differentiation. The development of B cell includes its maturation, activation and differentiation into B plasma cells and B memory cells. The lymphoid progenitor in the bone marrow is differentiated into pro B cell. This pro B cells then undergoes a series of differentiation which includes pre B cells then immature B cells and finally mature B...
Alternative σ-factors of bacteria bind core RNA polymerase to program the specific promoter selectivity of the holoenzyme. Signal-responsive changes in the availability of different σ-factors redistribute the RNA polymerase amongst the distinct promoter classes in the genome for appropriate adaptive, developmental and survival responses. The σ54-factor is structurally and functionally distinct from all other σ-factors. Consequently, binding of σ54 to RNA polymerase confers unique features...
Green revolution technologies arrived in Pakistan in the 1960's through the introduction of high yielding varieties (HYV's). After about 4-5 years this technology proved ineffective because those HYV's need irrigated conditions, costly chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Frequent irrigation caused severe damage to soil conditions in the form of salinity over a wide area and cause significant genetic erosion (Yasin, 2007). Field concentrations of fungicides have induced negative...
Superconductivity is a phenomenon that occurring in certain materials such as metal and alloys and characterized by the absence of the complete electrical resistivity and interior magnetic field damping. Superconductivity occurs in a large amount of materials, including simple elements like tin and aluminium, various metallic alloys, some heavily-doped semiconductors, and certain ceramic compounds containing copper and oxygen atoms lanes. Superconductivity does not occur in noble metals like...