Phytosterols, which encompass plant sterols and stanols, are steroid compounds similar to cholesterol which occur naturally in plants and vary only in side chains and/or double bonds. Although almost structurally identical to cholesterol, plant sterols and stanols possess an extra methyl or ethyl group at the C24 position, as well as, in the case of stanols, a single rather than double bond at the C5 position of the molecule. Plant sterols, found principally in foods including nuts and legumes...
Glycerol is a by-product obtained during the production of biodiesel. As the biodiesel production is increasing rapidly, the crude glycerol generated from the transesterification of vegetables oils has been generated in a great quantity. About 10% of crude glycerol will be formed during the synthesis of biodiesel from triglycerides. Products obtained from glycerol can be used in food, pharmaceuticals, polymer, agricultural, cosmetics, resins functional fluid plastics etc. Increasing the...
In average human cells contain about 50,000 different enzymes, every single one of them controls different chemical reactions, As well as acting as a catalyst all the metabolic reaction of cells such as respiration, photosynthesis and digestion they all act as membrane pumps and receptors. Enzymesare used to act like catalysts they do not take part inchemicaland biological activities but rather they increase the rate of reaction. The shape of an enzyme can affect its rate of reaction. However...
Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK and over the last 40 years survival rates have improved significantly. Many breast cancers are oestrogen dependant and as such these tumours require oestrogen to be present to proliferate. Oestrogen is manufactured in adipose tissue and breast tissue by conversion from testosterone and catalyzed by cytochrome P450 aromatase, which is encoded by a single gene CYP19 on the human chromosome 15.CYP has 9 known promoters which are...
CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW Concrete is a heterogeneous material. This is composed of rock, sand, cement and water. Chemical admixtures and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) can also be added to the concrete to get desired properties. When water is added to cement, a chemical reaction begins which is called hydration. The cement hydration products are responsible for binding the concrete components together and for the strength gain. There are several other important physical...
The small intestine is the only part of the gastrointestinal tract that is essential for life. It serves a neuroendocrine function, a digestive function (propulsion, mixing and absorption of food), and a secretory function. The liver, gallbladder and pancreas are accessory organs of the digestive system that is closely associated with the small intestine. The villous surface improves absorption by increasing the overall surface area. In addition to absorption nutrients, it is responsible for...
Cells are the building blocks of life; they form tissues, which create organs that in turn create living organisms. However, cells in themselves are complex; they are built out of multiple organelles, they are all specialised for certain roles in the cell, and when working correctly they allows the cell to function correctly. The Nucleus is the control centre of the cell it commands the rest of the cell. The nucleus, which is only found in eukaryotic cells, is contained in almost every body...
The third most common cancer in female population is the cervical cancer with an estimated 530,000 new cases in 2008 from GLOBOCAN (IARC) data. More than 85% of the cases are reported in developing countries, where it accounts for 13% of all female cancers. According to the WHO (World Health Organization) the incidence of cervical cancer in Europe region is 3.8% (age-standardized rate (ASR) is 10.1%), the mortality rate is 3.4% (ASR is 3.9%) and the 5-year prevalence is 4.6%. In our country the...
Ionising radiation has had a significant role in medicine ever since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity at the end of the 19th century. The benefits that is has generated are numerous; however there is a risk of harm from exposure. The aim of this essay is to present information about a number of imaging modalities and treatments using X-rays (a type of ionising radiation) and how these techniques can best be used with minimal risk to the patient.Generation of X-raysX-rays are produced...
With the introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy(HAART), the number of AIDS death has reduced drastically. However, the numbers are still discouraging, with an estimation of 2.7 million newly infected individuals worldwide in 2010[1] and more than 20,000 people in Australia living with HIV alone.[2] It is important to address the different type of HIV as HIV-1,being the more prevalent strain[3], has a higher virulence and infectivity factor compared to HIV-2[4]. It has a global...