Abstract- Determining frequent objects (item sets, episodes, and sequential patterns) is one of the most important fields of data mining. It is well known that the way candidates are defined has great effect on running time and memory needs, and this is the reason for the large number of algorithms. Frequent patterns mining is the focused research topic in association rules analysis. Apriori algorithm is a classical algorithm of association rules mining. Lots of algorithms for mining...
The lower GI series is done to study the structure and function of the large intestine. It requires administration material and may be done using one of the following methods. That are single contrast (using only barium sulphate) and double contrast (using both barium sulphate and air). Single contrast a single stage procedure in which the radiologist instils barium and air during a single filling procedure. The single-contrast barium enema is a procedure using only a positive-contrast medium....
Despite substantial international funding to protect rainforests, global deforestation rates show little sign of abatement, suggesting that previous efforts have generally had limited success (Jepson et al., 2001; Whitten et al., 2001). Whilst the ongoing loss of tropical rainforests represents one of the most serious threats to biodiversity (Sodhi, 2008; Sodhi et al., 2010) recent discussions on tropical deforestation have focussed on its contribution to climate change (Achard et al., 2007;...
According to several authors, banana peel recorded stronger antioxidant activity, pooled more quantity of phenolic compounds (Someya et al., 2002), greater range of phenolics composition and higher in minerals content than banana pulp. Banana pulp had been reported as having various antioxidants such as vitamins (A, B and E), β - carotene (Kanazawa & Sakakibara, 2000) and phenolic compounds like catechin, epicatechin, lignin, tannin (Someya et al., 2002), gallocatechin and anthocyanins...
Introduction Soil, being a pivotal natural resource for agriculture, has a prime importance in food security and national economy of Pakistan. Out of 79.6 million hectare (m ha) geographical area of the country (23° 53¢ to 36° 49¢ N, 61° 15¢ to 74° 50¢ E), 23.1 m ha is under cultivation (Rashid, 2005). The soils across much of the cultivated areas in the country are developed of calcareous alluvium and loess, and are low in organic matter as well as in many essential...
Cellular heat shock proteins (Hsps), the molecular chaperones are induced upon heat shock, UV irradiation, and microbial or viral infections. Besides their chaperonic function, recently they are shown to be involved in apoptosis and immune response. However, a clear understanding of their role in HIV-1 infection is still elusive. Previously, we have shown that Hsp40, interacts with HIV-1 Nef and is upregulated during HIV-1 infection. It enhances Nef mediated viral gene expression and...
Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that has been one of the most prevalent biologics on the market, and has made some very significant sales over the last few years. It was originally designed in 1986 by IDEC pharmaceuticals. The drug is now being marketed under the brand names Rituxin and MabThera, dependant on the region. The antibody is chimeric in nature and is comprised of murine and human regions. It contains heavy and light variable regions of a murine origin and constant heavy...
Cancer is one of the most severe diseases worldwide. This is documented by the fact that about twelve percent of the global death rate is due to cancer (Garcia et al., 2007). Thus, studying cancer is of major importance for biological, biomedical and clinical research. The development of anti-cancer drugs is still an extensive and sensible approach in the current decade (Workman, 2005) and the anti-neoplastic properties of many chemical agents have been investigated in in-vivo (Early et al.,...
The apical-basal cell polarity determinant Crumbs regulates Hippo signaling in Drosophila via Expanded Introduction Crumbs is a transmembrane domain protein with a large extracellular domain and a short intracellular domain. The extracellular domain contains 28 epidermal growth factor-like repeats and 3 laminin-G like repeats, and the intracellular domain contains two conserved motifs, a juxtamembrane motif and a PDZ binding motif (9).B. ResultsCrumbs gain of function causes overgrowth and...
The European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. plays an important role in pollinating flowering plants and in conserving and promoting biodiversity and agricultural productivity (Klein et al. 2007). One third of the total human diet is dependent on insect-pollinated plants, predominately by the European honeybee (McGregor 1976). A number of crops either depend mainly on or are benefited by honeybee pollination. In North America, for example, honeybees pollinate no fewer than 90 crops (Partap 2011)...