When stimulated by certain agonists or fluid shear stress, the vascular endothelium mediates relaxation of the underlying smooth muscle by releasing factors such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. Such stimuli also evoke hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells that is independent of NO and prostacyclin, a response first described in guinea pig and porcine arteries exposed to acetylcholine and bradykinin (Beny & Brumet, 1988, Chen et al., 1988). These findings led to the hypothesis...
Streptococcus pyogenes bacterium a worldwide known human pathogen is also known as the Group A Streptococcus, GAS. It is Gram-positive, non-motile, and spherical in shape which grows in long chains or pairs (Figure 1A). S.pyogenes is distinguished from the other streptococci by the presence of the Lance field Group A carbohydrate found on its cell wall and it produces large zone of beta-hemolysis ( haemoglobin released when the erythrocytes are completely disrupted) when grown on a plate...
Over the last decades, the attention to biomaterials which have a biodegradation behavior has increased significantly according to the dramatic increase of the demand for biodegradable materials (Cao and Wang, 2009). Biomaterial defines as any substances or compound of substances original or synthetic, which has certain properties to be used any time partly or fully for the body treatment purposes such as augmenting or replacing any organ, tissue, or function (Von Recum and Laberge, 1995). If...
Plant breeding has played a vital role in the advancement of human civilization (Arnel, 2006). The domestication of plants implied that man graduated from being a hunter-gatherer and could now settle down and focus his creativity on improving other aspects of civilization. The fundamental discoveries of Darwin and Mendel established the scientific basis for plant breeding and genetics at the turn of the 20th century. Recent advances in biotechnology, genomics and molecular marker applications...
Leukaemia is cancer occurs in blood-forming cells of bone marrow, which is distinguished by unusual blood cells proliferation. Its four main categories are acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) and chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). , , According to National Cancer Registry Malaysia, 1229 leukaemia cases had been reported in 2002. Hence, what are the current treatments accessible for this fatal disease? Solution: HSCT...
Karyotype construction and analysis is the powerful diagnostic method to identify the chromosomal studies in human genetic. Karyotyping is usually done at the metaphase of cell cycle in which the chromosome structure is the most condensed. Therefore, it is also known as complete set of metaphase chromosome (Nie et at., 1998). There are 46 chromosomes in human (22 autosomes and sex chromosomes). Karyotype show the number of chromosomes, the sex chromosome content, the presence or absence of...
Malaria is most probably the oldest disease which is known within human and it is also well known disease among the human population. It has become a widespread and potentially lethal infectious disease. It has been with human for ages which can be more than 4,000 years. They are probably originated from Africa. The first malaria parasite that has been found out was mosquitoes that are approximately 30 million years old. For centuries, this disease had caused lack in economic development in...
Quinones et al., (2009) carried out a quantitative study to determine the lead bioaccumulation from a hydroponic medium using Pistia stratiotes. They used a number of aquatic plants to be grown in greenhouse conditions. The results indicated that the low desorption rate being constant. The irreversible kinetic model is best to describe data of experiment. It can be used to describe the heavy metal removal dynamics from wastewaters in artificial wetlands. Mufarrege et al., (2009) worked on...
The biological process which protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens is known as Immune system which is divided into innate and adaptive immune system. The innate or natural non specific immune system that provides first line of immune system whereas adaptive immune system is very specific with immunological memory and consists functions such as recognition of antigen, generation of responses and resulting immunological memory cells and lymphocytes which produced in bone...
1. INTRODUCTION Each and every year so many drugs loss their patent protection and opens the door for the generic alternatives. In this way Bioavailability and Bioequivalence studies becomes most important. Bioavailability is defined as "The rate and extent (amount) of adsorption of unchanged drug from its dosage form" Bioavailability can be generally documented by a systematic exposure profile obtained by measuring drug/metabolite concentration in the systemic circulation over a...