The use of live animals in conducting medical test has been in use for a long time and it has had invaluable use in the progress of medical science and understanding of human body. The history of use of animals in experimentation is dated to the ancient Greeks and the Romans although this changed from old model to a more advanced state during the 18th and 19th centuries (Tybanks). Charles Darwin in 1959, through the evolutionary theory was able to demonstrate that live animals could be used as...
Salt (sodium chloride) is used to improve texture, enhance the flavor, and extend the shelf life of meat products that include ham, bacon, sausage, frankfurters, and bologna. Salt is commonly found in meat products at a 2% inclusion level (Offer and Trinick 1983). However, frankfurters and bologna typically include salt at inclusion levels greater than 2% (Smith and Hui 2004). Matulis et al. (1995) found that lowering salt levels to less than 1.3% in frankfurters resulted in incomplete...
Cloning Since Dolly the first ever mammal to be cloned from an adult cell was successfully cloned, many people and organizations believe that cloning can be used to help deliver many human needs and demands. However, the idea of cloning has caused many concerns and debates over its worthiness. Using the DNA of a single parent the technique of cloning creates identical genetic copies of the single parent.Biological concept and processThere are many different ways which the application of cloning...
Our experiment was based around one important question - What factors affect the reaction rate of catalase enzyme the most? The catalase enzyme is known as an antioxidant enzyme found in living organisms that breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen (Sahelian, n.d.). There are two factors known to affect the reaction rate of catalase - change in substrate concentration and change in temperature. Heat does increases reaction rate, but too much heat denatures the enzyme and the effects...
Introduction: Inflammatory mediators play an important role in the mediation of inflammation and trauma. There for they could be useful for the determination of vitality and wound age. Objective: In the present study, interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibronectin (Fn) and lipoxinA4 (LXA4) were estimated in extracts of antemortem skin wounds in rats. Moreover, we extended our measurements to include the levels of these mediators in rat skin wounds in the early postmortem period aiming to test for their...
There are approximately 800 new cases of anal cancer every year in the United Kingdom, and most patients present with locally advanced disease. The current treatment protocol for locally advanced anal cancer is radical radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. The 5 year overall survival rate for these patients is 60-73%. Recent evidence suggests that most cases of anal cancer over-express the epidermal growth factor receptor. Cetuximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody which targets the...
It is estimated that about four in ten cancer patients have radiotherapy as part of their treatment6 and as this figure continues to grow, so does the importance of treatment with minimal complications from the radiation. In terms of frequency of radiotherapy accidents resulting from overdosing and underdosing , treatment planning accounts for 28% of these accidents and treatment delivery 20%. Such accidents can have devastating effects, ranging from the irreparable damage of normal cells and...
This report is examining the effects that plants growing in overcrowded conditions go through and what affects overcrowding has on seedlings making comparisons to plants which have been grown in normal/ideal special conditions. It also includes literature research into the different methods which are used for the growth of plants in both commercial settings and private setting and which method suits this investigation's purposes best. It gives results in both observational and quantitative ways...
The effects of ultrasonic treatment on the structure and properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses at room temperature were investigated by nanoindentation, in situ high-pressure synchrotron diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show that the glassy characteristics of the samples were stable up to 31GPa. Furthermore, the hardness, bulk modulus, and distribution of reduced hardness improved after ultrasonic treatment. The DSC results indicate that ultrasonic...
Arsenic with symbol and Atomic Number 33 is a metallic element, Atomic Weight 74.92159; forms a number of poisonous compounds, some of which are used in medicine. Arsenic can exist in a metallic state in three forms (yellow, black, and gray; with gray predominating) and in ionic forms. Elementary arsenic is fairly insoluble, whereas arsenic compounds may readily dissolve. Arsenic is mainly present in watery solutions as HAsO42-(aq) and H2AsO4- (aq), and most likely partially as H3AsO4 (aq),...