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A combination of Isophthalonitrile, 5M sodium hydroxide, and dioxane was placed in a round-bottom flask equipped with a magnetic follower. A reflux apparatus was then set up with the use of a paraffin oil bath. The reflux was then stabilized at 90 oC and the mixture was allowed to reflux overnight. Ammonia was liberated as a result of the condensation reaction. The absence of ammonia from the adduct was then tested via TLC. Petroleum ether/ ethyl acetate (1:1) was utilized as the mobile phase...
This paper provides an overview of relevant studies done on the impacts of atrazine on amphibians and its strengths and limitations in finding the degree to which atrazine may bring out developmental effects in them by comparing the results obtained from laboratory and field studies. If so, dose-response relationships associated with its nature and strength. The laboratory studies reviewed different endpoints i.e. time for metamorphosis, growth i.e. body length and weight, abnormality of...
Introduction to Metallurgy Our planet earth is a vast source of elements which are distributed in its crust, water bodies and atmosphere. Out of these elements nearly 80 per cent are metals which occur either in the combined state or in free state (called motive state). Metals occurring in free state are copper, silver, gold and platinum group metals. Not only metals some non-metals also occur in the free state, such as, carbon, sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen and group 18 elements (the noble gases)....
The cellular and molecular mechanisms in place for regulating the major aspects of retinogenesis have not yet been fully elucidated. It is undisputed that they must involve both intrinsic and extrinsic factors which act upon the progenitor cells to control differentiation and direct changes in competence over developmental time. The inductive interactions are slowly being worked out through analysis based upon gene expression patterns, immunohistochemistry and by loss of function mice. There is...
Heart failure is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Considerable efforts have been lavished on characterizing the functional and structural changes occurring in its development and recovery and elucidating the complex biological mechanisms underpinning these processes. HF is a serious condition characterized by impaired heart pumping function leading to an insufficient cardiac output. Thus, the delivery of blood and nutrients is inadequate for tissue requirements. It may be due...
Salicylic acid (SA) or ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid and related compounds belong to a diverse group of plant phenolics. Salicylates from plant sources have been used in medicines since antiquity. In 1828 in Munich was isolated for the first time a small amount of salicin, the glucoside of salicyl alcohol, from willow bar. Ten years latter Raffaele Piria named it SA, from the Latin word Salix for willow tree. Aspirin, a trade name for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), undergoes spontaneous hydrolysis to...
Induction of the humoral immune response begins with the recognition of antigen. Through a process of clonal selection, specific B-cells are stimulated to proliferate and differentiate. However, this process requires the intervention of specific T-cells that are themselves stimulated to produce lymphokines that are responsible for activation of the antigen-induced B-cells. In other words, B cells recognize antigen via immunoglobulin receptors on their surface but are unable to proliferate and...
Bones can be categorized in five types, i.e., long, short, flat and sesamoid or irregular. The long bones include the femora, tibiae, fibulae, humeri, radii, ulnae, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges, clavicles, which provide skeletal mobility and are subjected to most of the load during everyday activities. The shafts of the long bones are referred to as the diaphyses, and the expanded ends as the epiphyses.Macroscopic composition of boneMacroscopically the bone consists of the periosteum,...
Neurodegenerative diseases, which will become increasingly prevalent in our ageing society, share the common pathological feature of the accumulation of misfolded proteins and the subsequent formation of insoluble aggregates. Amongst the various pathogenic mechanisms proposed to cause these diseases, impaired axonal transport has been directly linked to neurodegeneration as defects in essential components of the axonal transport system, such as the kinesin and dynein microtubule-associated...
Carbon nanotubes are a recently discovered allotrope of carbon. They take the formcylindrical carbon molecules and have novel properties that make them potentially useful in a wide variety of applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of materialsscience. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat. Inorganic nanotubes have also been synthesized.A nanotube is a member of the fullerene structural family,...