The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term application of Cu-based fungicides on soil microbial communities using community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) and profiling of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). A principal component analysis (PCA) of CLPPs gave a first principal component (PC1) which was strongly correlated to soil pH (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), indicating that the microbial community metabolic functions in these orchard soils were to a large extent...
DNA sequencing is an analytical technique carried out in order to define the order of nucleotide bases in a DNA sample. The methods for carrying out this sequencing include the Maxam Gilbert Chemical Cleavage Method and the Sanger Chain Termination Method. The most commonly used method today is the Sanger method due to greater efficiency and less toxic materials used in the process compared to the chemical cleavage method. DNA sequencing is important for a number of reasons. The sequence of...
Household bleach is a common commodity used by all income groups of India. This is mainly because of hot and humid climatic condition which left us with no other choice than white or light colour daily wear clothes. To maintain personal hygiene and attractive look within the available budget it is necessary to use bleaches. One question which bothered me quite often was, when so many bleach brands are accessible, which one is the best to buy and this gave me the idea to frame my research...
Samples are injected into the sampler where they run in order. The pumps force the solvent through the column. The solid phase is packed into a column. The solvent emerging from the column and carrying the separated components of the mixture passes into the detector. This then shines a beam of UV light that is set at a wavelength that is absorbed by all the components to be detected. When the detector readings drop it means a component that is absorbing UV light coming out solvent through the...
Bioindicators, also known as biomarkers, are tools that used in ecology, physiology, environmental microbiology and other disciplines, to detect strain and other environmental conditions surrounding organisms. USEPA stated that biological indicator species are unique environmental indicators as they offer a signal of the biological condition in a watershed as they reveal the pollution status from time to time. The presence of this species can give an early warning of pollution or degradation in...
Pharmaceutical analysis may be defined as the application of analytical procedures used to determine the purity, safety and quality of drugs and chemicals. More recently it also deals with biological samples in support of biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic studies. Some of the medicinal products are still being assayed by the time-tested procedures of gravimetric and titrimetric technique. A wide diversity in the type of analytical technique has been characteristic of assay method for...
Early diagnosis and treatment is a very significant aspect of malaria control. Making early detection and effective and timely treatment has shown to cure the disease by controlling malaria in its early stages. However, severe malaria can develop from uncomplicated disease within hours and most malaria mortality take place in rural regions where people have low access to health care facilities. Correct and prompt treatment can also reduce the spread of parasitic resistance to drugs, and in...
E2Fs family includes transcription factors in nucleus of eukaryotic cells. There are eight members of this family from E2F 1 to 8 which activate in G1 and S phases of a cell cycle (Attwooll, 2004). The structure the E2Fs family contains four mainly functional domain a cyclin domain, a DNA binding domain (DBD), dimerization domain, transactivation domain containing Rb binding domain (DeGregori and Johnson, 2006). The DBD of the eight factors are highly homologous to respond to the E2F - DNA...
Better comprehension of molecular and cellular biology has lead to anticancer therapies that are able to overcome the biophysical, biomedical and cellular barriers and expected to give lesser side effects and better antitumor efficacy. Nanoparticles are unique due to their small size and surface modifiability which paves the way for development of exciting new methods of nanoparticle synthesis with variable composition and a great numbers of functions. They can be used as drug delivery system,...
Infectious diseases are caused by the transmission of pathogens, which are microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Pathogens can be transmitted by direct contact - horizontal and vertical transmission - and by indirect contact - vehicle-borne transmission and vector-borne transmission. Pathogens are microorganisms that cause infectious disease. Bacteria and viruses are the main pathogens.BacteriaSalmonella bacterium cell Bacteria come in many shapes and sizes, but even the largest are only...