Relatively common, occurs in approximately 25% of all pregnancies. As it is so upsetting for parents, the utmost sensitivity is required, even at very early gestations. Clinical management should be founded on 2 important principles: The incidence of miscarriage has been shown to increase with maternal age, rising by a factor of 10 after the age of 40yrs compared to before 35yrs. Overall, when the foetus is found to be viable on ultrasound scan, the chance of a successful outcome is...
Meningiomas and schwannomas are common tumours of the brain caused by mutations in the gene for merlin and occur early in life when inherited. Population based studies suggest that up to 1:300 people will develop a tumour in their lifetime (spontaneous or inherited) caused by a mutation in the merlin gene 1, 2. As these tumours grow slowly classical chemotherapeutic treatments are not effective. The only treatment options currently available are local therapies, surgery and radiosurgery,...
During suspicious death investigations including suicides, forensic toxicology is often implemented to ensure lack of poisoning or impaired mental capabilities. The forensic toxicologist requires samples for possible drug or poison analysis from the pathologist, which are dependent on the availability and often due to a lack of communication, the correct specimens are not received, leading to an inability to perform correct analyses. The standard array of samples for forensic toxicological...
Hypertension is present in 20-30% of the adult population and is particularly prevalent in the developed world. An increased arterial pressure can lead to a variety of diseases including ischaemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular events. All of these are associated with a marked increased risk of mortality and morbidity. Most patients (80-90%) suffer from primary hypertension with unknown cause, while secondary hypertension can have a wide variety of causes...
Alcohol is an essential part of people's life all the time. In China, beer and liquor is the common alcoholic beverage during the dinner. It can't image that there is no alcoholic beverage in a party or celebration. Due to alcohols make drinker temporarily forget almost everything and feel comfortable, people treat wine as a special thing that can affect the spiritual statue. Different alcoholic beverage has different percentage of alcohol. Normally, it's more than 40% alcohol in liquor. As the...
Mitochondria have its key role within the process of energy metabolism of cells. The organelles are engaged in the cell regulation as well as cell death and survival and it act as a determinant of necrosis and apoptosis (Hirofumi Nishida, Akio Matsumoto, Naohiro Tomono, Takahiro Hanakai, Shintaro Harada, Haruaki Nakaya, 2010). From past so many decades, a progress in the conceptual understanding of mitochondrial functions has been increased for performing such functions ion transportation, cell...
Microorganisms are ubiquitous in the environment and although majority of them are non-pathogenic, there are some that can cause great damage; regardless of their pathogenic spectrum, organisms need to be identified in order to have a better understanding of their mechanisms. Identification can be done by performing different experiments, beginning with tests that will show broad differences among them leading up to unique characteristics that will only be exhibited by that peculiar organism....
Despite Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) having a wide species tropism, infection in rhesus macaque species does not cause infection. This is unfortunate, as the rhesus macaque is an animal model used for many HIV vaccine studies, which commonly use HSV as a virus base. Investigating the reason why this happens is the overall goal of Rezka et al in this paper, with the specific goal of exploring the role of TRIM5alpha, a protein that was previously found to restrict early gene expression in HIV...
The optic lobe forms a prominent compartment of the Drosophila adult brain that processes visual input from the compound eye. Neurons of the optic lobe are produced during the larval period from two neuroepithelial layers called the outer and inner optic anlage (OOA, IOA). In the early larva, the optic anlagen grow as epithelia by symmetric cell division. Subsequently, cells convert into neuroblasts in a tightly regulated spatio-temporal progression that starts at the edges of the epithelia...
Nanomedicine is one of the applications of nanotechnology and it uses ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials to nanoelectronic biosensors. Present difficulties of nanomedicine includes realizing the issues rconnected to toxicity and environmental.Nanomedicine expects to produce precious tools and useful devices in coming future.  The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug...