Theileriosis and heartwater are considered to be the most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in extensive economic losses to farmers in endemic areas. Corridor disease, caused by Theileria parva, is a controlled disease in South Africa. Buffalo are the natural reservoir hosts ofthis parasite, which is transmitted by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis. Buffalo also appear to be the original hosts of two other Theileria species infecting...
X-ray crystallography was originally a means of determining the nature of X-rays, and was never supposed to be a research tool. X-ray crystallography is a process of determining the arrangement of atoms within crystals. In x-ray crystallography, x-rays strike a crystal and diffract into many specific directions, giving a crystallographer the means by which he can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. Max von Laue developed a law that connects the...
Impatiens is one of the two genera of the family Balsaminaceae (order: Geraniales) that has about 1000 species (Caris et al., 2006). Around 850 species of Impatiens are annual and perennial herbs and shrubs (Llamas, 2003). The Himalayan region is proposed as Impatiens's origin and the major centers of diversity are in the highlands and mountains of sub-tropical and tropical of Africa and South Asia (Uchneat, 2007). Impatiens native species are absent from Australia and South America (Caris et...
From many time ago, it has been said that those who think they have not time for bodily exercise will sooner or later have to find time for illness (1). From this point and others the importance of exercise was published. Furthermore, to get healthier lifestyle we have to keep ourselves physically active in order to prevent major illness. It is good to mention that you could get valuable health benefits from exercise even without special sport's equipments. There are evidence shows that...
Organic Pi- conjugate polymers are considered to be the promising materials towards plastic electronics due to its excellent electrical and optical properties, with fairly stable properties and easy processability. [1] The charge carrier mobility of semiconductor determines the performance of the organic FET. The material regioregular Poly 3- hexylthiophene (RR-P3HT) shows high field effect mobility and a reasonable on- off ratio. RR-P3HT is a good solvent and has good film properties. RR-P3HT...
Key properties of the Zirconi are its high density, low thermal conductivity which is below 20% than that of alumina, Chemical and corrosion inertness , resistance to molten metals , Ionic electrical conduction , Wear resistance , High fracture toughness and High hardness. Besides that it is an extremely refractory material and is electric conductive above 600°C. But all these properties are the function of the content of the additives that are used to stabilized the zirconia ceramics. The...
Peer reviewed articles in the context of scientific research are articles that have been critiqued by other experts and researchers in the same field of study as the author before they are published. The peer reviewer can include tips, suggestions and improvements to the article to make it better before the author publishes it, but if the author can't or won't take the reviewer's advice, the article may not be published (it will be rejected) because it will be lacking quality. Peer reviewing...
According to Maciocia, "Interrelationship is the essence of Chinese medicine since the body is regarded as an integrated whole." (Maciocia, 2005, p. 171) Therefore, even though the five Zang organs, which are known in TCM theory as the Heart, Lungs, Spleen, Liver and Kidneys, have their own vital functions, they are also interrelated and coordinated in order to maintain a balance among the Internal Organs. Hence, in order to understand them properly, it is important that these vital...
Clinical or exposed exposure studies are more advantageous than observational or epidemiological studies for studying the health impacts of ambient air pollutants. In clinical studies a specific air pollutant can be chosen and its effects can be studied by reference to clean air There have been a number of controlled exposure studies that have examined the short term exposure effects of sulfuric acid or solvable sulfate aerosols on the lungs of healthy and asthmatic people In the study ob...
The key to the success of FBDD lies in the ability of the biophysical methods used to provide enough information for the 3D structure of the ligand-protein interaction. These methods need to be highly sensitive to be of use in fragment screening and validation of hits. NMR and X-ray crystallography are valuable tools in FBDD because of their ability to provide the highest resolution of 3D structures but the best approaches have been those that use complementary methods to provide data in the...