Divalproex sodium is an effective anticonvulsant, antimanic and migraine prophylaxis agent. The delayed release tablet is intended to release the drug after some delay or after tablet pass gastrointestinal tract. The enteric coating is common example of this tablet. The main aim of this work is to develop a delayed release tablet formulation of Divalproex sodium using direct compression method. Response surface methodology based on four variables central composite rotatable design was employed...
The emergence of hospital-acquired infections presents a serious contemporary challenge in medicine. The rise of drug resistance in such pathogens complicates the treatment of patients even further. Such is the case with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a versatile pathogen which has a unique drug resistance mechanism towards the penicillin derivative methicillin. This disease often presents with a broad range of symptoms and may cause fatal secondary infections in patients...
Filtration is a physical separation process which is mainly used in chemical engineering operation for removing unwanted materials from desired product. This process is today extensively used for various purposes like removing impurity, dewatering, clarifying, concentrating etc. in all modern food industries. But it was not the image a few years back and step by step developments have been added to filtration technique by chemical engineers in order to achieve process requirements. Techniques...
Abstract An experiment was assessed for measuring the effect of partial physical desiccation on plant regeneration efficiency in scutellum derived embryogenic callus of rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety Super basmati. A number of callusing cultures were developed, while efficient callus induction was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D. The calluses were proliferated on the same medium for 3-weeks than shifted to dehydration desiccation treatment for 72 hrs. The desiccated...
It is known that the antihypertensive drug clonidine acts on a2- adrenoceptors. This study was designed to see whether alpha 2-agonist, clonidine, binds to its a2- adrenoceptors receptors within the vascular smooth muscle and producing its effects on the cardiovascular system, affecting the contractility of the heart and the heart rate through its effect on the pacemaker. In the isolated heart, the highest concentration of clonidine used (1x10-5M) had produced the maximum effect. The heart of a...
Hydrates have been a major problem in natural gas industry for a long time. Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds composed of water and natural gas. Formation of hydrates is highly undesirable as they block transmission lines, plug blowout preventers, jeopardize the foundation of deep water platforms and pipelines, cause tubing and casing collapses. The results can range from flow reduction to equipment damage. The conditions that tend to promote hydrate formation include the...
Do some phylogenetic groups have different genetic sensitivity to cardiovascular disease than others? Genes are the major factors that make every human unique and distinguishable. Even though human genes are 99.99% similar, that tiny difference plays an important role. Recent scientists have discovered that certain illnesses are unique for each person. For example, cancer type of each person is unique according to his/her genes. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are also partially related to the...
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that is responsible for a tremendous amount of agony, affecting people of various ages in more than 50 million individual throughout the whole world (Hermann et al., 2008). Majority of the cases are idiopathic while the rest may be due to certain provoked forms such as traumatic brain injury, metabolic derangements, drugs withdrawal, alcohol intake, cerebral infarction and central nervous system (CNS) infection (Davenport and Simpson, 2009). With regards to...
Plants grow in a dynamic environment. Their growth and development are influenced by abiotic (environmental) and biotic stresses. These stresses are the primary cause of crop loss worldwide. They can reduce the average yields of crop plants by more than 50% (Bartels and Sunkar 2005). There are so many environmental stresses determining plant growth, distribution, and development. One of the most important environmental stresses is drought. This stress leads to cellular dehydration. It causes...
The integumentary system is the organ system that is made up of the skin, which can be hair, feather, nails, and scales. The integumentary system is vital to an organism because it acts as a shield and protects the organism from the outside environment like the weather, infectious organisms and acts as an touch and pain receptor. The integumentary system consists of three layers: the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. The integumentary system is different for the four dissection animals. The...