The tissue development plays an important part in animal physiology. This is in part controlled by morphogens. Morphogens are substances that have the ability to determine the developmental fate of an embryo. They are indispensible diffusible factors that govern tissue morphology. During development, different morphogens are produced within the embryo or by cells of the surrounding maternal tissues. These morphogens diffuse through the embryonic tissue, each of them establishing its own...
INTRODUCTION Carbonic anhydrase, abbreviated as CA, is the first identified zinc containing enzyme, (CA; carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1) It is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration and dehydration of carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid, bicarbonate ions and protons. Being one of the fastest enzyme known, it is believed that one molecule of CA can process one million molecules of carbon dioxide per second. The basic molecular structure of CA includes specific amino acid...
While microorganisms are found on nearly every surface imaginable, certain industries such as the medical, and the food production industry depend on being able to minimize the adverse effects associated with some of these microbes. This is most easily accomplished by the annihilation of these organisms, before they pose a problem. This is what is known as sterilization, or more correctly "the elimination or destruction of all forms of microbial life" (Rutala and Weber, 2002)....
Micelles and microemulsions of dimethyledodecyleaminopropanesulfonate Dodecyletrimetyleamoniumbromide and Sodiumdodecylesulfate formed in water /menthol or in eutectic system were investigated using laser light and small angle neutron scattering. The size of the (micelles/microemulsion) system was concentration of surfactant and / or amount of oil dependent. Noticeable increase in size of system was observed in case SDS/menthol (4:10) and SDS/Eutectic (7:10). The results obtained by SANS showed...
Abstract Background: Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT), the only disease modifying treatment for allergic diseases, has been used for about a century while its mechanism of action is not completely understood. There is evidence indicating that FOXP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are induced during SIT in allergic patients. However, a functional role for FOXP3+ Tregs in SIT has not been shown and is difficult to determine in human studies. Objective: To analyze the kinetics of FOXP3+ Treg...
Wenchengia alternifolia Lamiaceae is an enigmatic plant species endemic to Hainan Island, China. For most of the past half-century, it is known mainly from two collections and was once suggested to be extinct until a remnant population was rediscovered in 2010 by the authors. We expanded field surveys and finally located two subpopulations and counted a total of 66 individuals. Thus W. alternifolia represents one of the most endangered species within Lamiaceae and falls within the Critically...
Aquaculture has been accepted the world over as a means for increasing fish production and a developing country like Nigeria with her immense resources offer tremendous possibilities for fish culture (Dada and Gnanadoss, 1983). Aquaculture expansion has been in slow process as private sector fish farmers face major constraints, such as lack of seed and quality feed (FAO, 2003). Fish is an important source of both food and income to many people in developing countries. In Africa, as much as 5%...
The re-designation of Acute Renal Failure by Acute Kidney Injury is not reflected in the current diagnosis and stratification of patients. Despite the change in nomenclature AKI diagnosis is limited to the use of functional surrogates of change in GFR: plasma creatinine and urine output. Plasma creatinine delays AKI diagnosis by 1-3 days 13, 205, 398. Urine output is possibly earlier, but is unreliable. Biomarkers reflecting injury promise earlier diagnosis. However, their performance in...
Abstract Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is one of the major components of honeybee propolis and its structure is similar to flavonoids. The molecular mechanisms of CAPE on various systems including cardiovascular system have not been known well. The aim of the present study was to investigate the short term dose dependent in vivo cardiovascular effects including heart rate and blood pressure changes induced by CAPE in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were anaesthetized and randomly divided...
A Bacterial spore (endospore) is a bacterium that has formed a thick outer wall to be able to survive in extreme environmental conditions, that it wouldn't normally live in. Some of these conditions include high temperatures, dryness, toxic chemicals ...etc. The vegetative portion of the bacterium is tarnished as soon as the endospore is made, and the inactive endospore is freed. The endospore is capable of living for long periods of time since it is protected. Any bacterial spores that...