The majority of adult LTxs are performed for emphysema due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Moreover, provided that patients suffering from emphysema, which is a very common condition, get maximal medical care, they survive for a long time on the transplant waiting list. Idiopathic lung disease (ILD) accounts for 23% of all adult LTx's and cystic fibrosis (CF) for 17%. A wide variety of miscellaneous diseases comprise the remaining percentage of...
As one of the most innovative and exciting areas in the health care field, muscle testing through kinesiology has given professionals feedback tools to identify multiple aspects of human movement ranging from injury cause and rehabilitation to sports performance. Just think for a moment about how bicycle designs or helmets have changed in the past 10-20 years. Much is this is due to the study of kinesiology. To comprehensively understand human movement, we must approach the topic from a...
Catalysts are materials that speed up chemical reactions and are widely used in the synthesis of chemicals. Noble metal catalysts are used for fuel cells as they are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air. They also are employed in fuel cells to convert water into hydrogen Fuel cells, as devices for direct conversion of the chemical energy of a fuel into electricity by electrochemical reactions and are among the key enabling technologies for the transition to a hydrogen based...
Tuberculosis disease is a major health problem in the world today. The causative agent of the disease Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects individuals by inhalation of M. tb aerosols produced by a person with the disease, mainly through coughing, or sneezing. When the bacteria enter the lungs, the person's innate immunity is activated. They bind to phagocytic receptors and are taken up by the macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes that have been recruited from the blood stream (Bhatt et al.,...
The solid state chemistry of most compounds is of significant importance to the drug industry. One compound can exist in one or more forms such as salts, polymorphs, solvates, hydrates, co-crystals and amorphous solids. Different solid forms exhibit different physiochemical properties, thus understanding the solid state of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is essential for optimization of drug dosage form design. For the past decades, many APIs in pharmaceutical products have been...
Cerebrovascular accidents (stroke) still remain the third leading cause of morbidity and death in the US. Consequently, it is important to know the areas of the cerebral cortex and spinal cord supplied by a particular artery and to understand the dysfunction that would result if the artery were blocked. The internal capsule that contains the major ascending the descending pathways to the cerebral cortex is commonly disrupted by arterial haemorrhage or thrombosis. The ophthalmic artery arises as...
A method and apparatus for non invasively measurement of haemoglobin concentration, where we have to select two wavelengths whose haemoglobin extinction coefficient is higher than that of water. The wavelengths which we using here will be an isobestic wavelengths where the absorption of the oxyhaemoglobin and the deoxyhaemoglobin will be the same .Then the incident light beams are made to fall over the predetermined site of the body and received at the other end using a photo detector. The...
Whole-grain cereals have received considerable attention in the past years due to the presence of bioactive components like phytochemicals and antioxidants. Although cereals are part of our daily diet still the bioactives and antioxidant properties of cereals does not received much attention as compared to fruits and vegetables. Studies shows that the increased consumption of whole-grains and its products has been associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. The phytochemicals...
The immune systems function is to provide protection against microorganisms. Defects in the immune system lead to immunodeficiencies like primary immunodeficiencies (PID's) which are inherited and are relatively rare in occurrence. PIDs are usually associated with immunologic abnormalities in both cell mediated and humoral immune responses, which are important in providing immunity against pathogens. This makes the individuals suffering from these disorders susceptible to infections by various...
Cheetahs were once common in South Central Asia to south West Asia, unfortunately after the nineteenth century is habitat has been very much reduced to central Iran and pockets in Africa (Charruau et al. 2011)Figure. Understanding the current habitat and distribution of Acinonys jubatus is fundamental for preserving and improving the survival of the species. Pettorelli et al., suggests that in order to study a cheetah territory one most take in to account the organism life history (Pettorelli...