Introduction Natural products have played an important role throughout the world in treating and preventing human diseases. Natural product medicines have come from various natural materials including terrestrial plants, terrestrial microorganisms, marine organisms, and terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates[1]. Scrutiny of different medical indications using various sources of compounds has demonstrated that natural products and related drugs are used to treat 87% of all categorized human...
Evolution means descent of organisms with genetic changes over time forming new species. The term 'Darwinism' refers to Charles Darwin theory of natural selection causing "evolutionary change" (Gould, 2002). Darwin observed that though there was an overproduction of offspring, populations remained the same; suggests that variations between the offspring's are selected by nature and only few survive. Offspring with beneficial characteristics, best suited to the environment, survive,...
In the field of molecular electronics, single molecules are the building blocks for many electronic circuits. The molecules can be manipulated easily as they are too small in size. The synthesis or Self- assembly processes can be used to manipulate the molecules. Molecular electronics unlike the conventional inorganic electronics has the advantage of low cost, high compatibility and simpler packaging. Rectifier or diode is a two terminal device that conducts in only one direction with the...
Smooth muscle is one of three muscle fiber types found in animals. Unlike skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, smooth muscle cells are not striated, and have single nuclei. Smooth muscles are typically under control of the autonomic nervous system, and do not contract voluntarily. Smooth muscle contracts slowly, and does not exhibit the characteristic twitch seen in skeletal muscle. In addition, smooth muscle is not prone to muscle fatigue, making it an ideal component of sphincter muscles. ...
ABC transporters are carrier proteins which have two ATP- binding "cassettes". Binding of ATP to the ATPase domains leads to their dimerization, whilst the hydrolysis of ATP leads to their dissociation. As it is a transmembrane protein i.e. exposed to both sides of the membrane, it is able to use this to transport small molecules in and out of the bilayer as it has substrate binding sites exposed to either side of the membrane. This is particularly true for bacteria, however in...
Declining production in oil recovery operations is of major worry in the oil producing industry. Naturally, the natural pressure in the reservoir normally yields no more than 10 percent recovery of the existing oil contained in the formation. The remaining oil is hard to produce due to its extremely low mobility. Regularly applied techniques for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) consist of steam, water, and gas flooding; hydraulic and explosive fracturing; injection of surfactants; and layer burning....
Introduction The possibility of human cloning rose when Scottish scientists at Roslin Institute created the much-celebrated sheep "Dolly", this thrill the worldwide interest and concern because of its scientific and ethical implications. Dolly, a Finn-Dorset ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. She was cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland and lived there from her birth in 1996 until her death in 2003 when she was six. Her stuffed...
Living cells of plants and animals are only able to survive under a narrow range of certain conditions that include nutrient availability, pH concentration, temperature, ion concentration among other factors. The human body, usually called inner environment has to time and again adapt to the outside environment which is ever experiencing weather changes and great climate diversification that occurs from one hour to another, one day to another day and from one season to another. It is in this...
Abstract The purpose of this investigation is to determine the frequency of meiotic divisions analyzed from hybrid crossings collected from different strains of the fungus Sordaria fimicola. The experiment was conducted to demonstrate hybrid crossings with MI and MII patterns of ascospores within the asci. Over the course of seven days, the sample of Sordaria was incubated and fused under laboratory conditions. In the outer areas of the blocks of agar, hyphae growth from the mutant tan strain...
The inner layer of cell membranes consists of a phospholipid bilayer. Phospholipids have a a hydrophilic polar head and two hydrophobic tails. Phospholipid diversity is based on differences in the two fatty acid tails and in the groups attached to the phosphate group of the head. Phospholipids are polar on one end (the phosphate end) and nonpolar on the other (the fatty acid end). Phospholipids form the core of all biological membranes. They function as being the membranes around cell for...