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The word nanotechnology is an umbrella term and it accommodates conventional physics, biology, chemistry, materials science and full range of engineering disciplines. Nanotechnology is an entirely new concept in manufacturing that will make most products lighter, stronger, cleaner, less expensive and more precise. Nanotechnology will profoundly affect economy and society, much as the industrial revolution has. Over the past few years, we have witnessed rapid advances in the field of...
In the 21st century medicines will continue to break through the current developments. To achieve advancements in this field, blockbuster therapeutics must continue to be discovered. A blockbuster therapeutic is a drug generating revenue greater then $1 billion annually. For such an income it must be a revolutionary drug of high quality and effectiveness. In order to formulate a blockbuster therapeutic a further understanding of the process of development must be obtained. Firstly, a drug must...
The main focus of the project is on study of the composition of membrane fatty acids of red blood cell membrane in both the genders. The techniques for the determination of the fatty acids were studied on the mock blood samples before using the actual blood samples. The mock blood samples were subjected to all the procedures as per the protocol for the determination of membrane fatty acids. This step helped in understanding the techniques in much details and it also helped in understanding the...
Research has shown that black bears (Ursus americanus) are able to defy some basic rules of mammalian physiology. Months of inactivity would lead to disastrous bone thinning in humans, but leaves bears' bones unharmed. Although bears do not move their large muscles for more than 100 days they actually increase their lean body mass in the den. Bears do not urinate during months of hibernation but their bodies show no build up of urea, a toxic waste product of protein metabolism normally...
Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, †Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Science, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand The development of abdominal obesity following chronic consumption of a high-fat diet contributes to peripheral insulin resistance. Although the relationship between peripheral insulin resistance and cognitive impairment have been shown, the effect of high-fat...
The prevalence of allergic disorders is increasing in the developed world and includes atopic asthma, several food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal systemic allergic response, which develops within seconds or minutes after contact with allergens (1, 2). It is important to understand that this is a severe allergic reaction that rapidly takes place after exposure to non-infectious environmental substances (3). Allergic diseases,...
B cell epitopes, defined as highly sites of molecules that are immunogenic regions within a given protein, are essential to many immuno-detection and immunotherapeutic applications[1]. The epitopes of protein antigens are divided into two categories: continuous/linear epitopes and discontinuous/conformational epitopes, based on their structure and interaction with the paratope. Antigenic determinants were recognized and bound by specific B-cell receptor, located on the surface of the antigen. B...
It is of great use to find out and clear up the interactions between enzymes and compounds, for understanding the molecular and cellular functions of organisms. In this study, we developed a novel method for the prediction of enzyme-compound interactions based on machine learning approach. The functional group composition of compounds and the biochemical and physicochemical description of proteins are used for representing enzyme-compound pairs. Tested by Jackknife cross-validation, our...
The concept of being able to replace an opaque cornea has been the aspiration of surgeons for as long as the practice of ophthalmology has existed. The first suggestion of transplanting corneas was found in Egyptian manuscripts dating over 4000 years ago (Albert and Edwards, 1996). At that time, trachoma and injuries were the primary causes of corneal scars and blindness; however treatments had no scientific basis and were instead based on religious rituals and topical applications of various...
Haemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells (erythrocytes) which transport oxygen in the bloodstream. Each consists of four haem groups, each surrounded by a globin chain. Haemoglobin A (HbA, α2β2) is the most abundant normal haemoglobin found in adults (95~98%) while the rest are HbA2 (α2δ2) and HbF (α2γ2). Abnormal haemoglobin maybe produced when genetic mutation happens, causing alteration in the amino acids chain making up the globin chain. Sickle haemoglobin (HbS), is the most...