Caco-2 cells, originally isolated in the year 1977, are the immortalized cell of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Enterocytes or mucus cell features are "expressed differentially by the human Caco-2 cells that are characteristic of a mature intestinal cell." Caco-2 cells are grown from a stock cells and such a well-defined and studied process of growing the cells is essential for productive use of Caco-2 cells in any study or research. Iron is an...
Introduction Proteins in living organisms present a wide variety of different shapes and structures each specialised for their particular function and role in maintaining homoeostasis. As a wide and rough guide proteins can be divided into categories such as enzymes, antibodies, transport proteins and structural proteins. When a cell is subjected to raised temperatures, a group of proteins (aptly named Heat shock proteins or Hsp's first discovered by Ritossa, 1962) - present and essential under...
IntroductionBack ground Of Sweden's area is about 60% of the forest, representing about 23 million ha (SVO, 2007). The abundant availability of biomass in these forests represent the largest biomass resource, which has an increasingly important role in the Swedish energy supply. Through an improved utilization of primary forest fuels can supply to increase by about 60 TWh by 2050 (Börjesson & Engstrom, 2010). Branches and tops (porridge) is the largest range of wood fuels today...
A nanoporous material is a type of porous material which has a pore diameter of about 1 to 100 nanometers. The presence of these pores makes the bulk material useful by rendering other physical properties (Schmid 2010). They have high surface to volume ratio making them porous (Amabilino 2009). Classification of nanoporous materials are based on the chemical composition. Nanoporous materials may be polymeric, carbon, glass, alumina-silicate, oxides or metals. All these types have varying...
Biology Is The Science Of Life.How Are Living Things Organized? All living things live in a hierarchical order that starts on the cellular level and ends on the population level, with different properties at each level known as emergent properties. What Are The Properties Of Life? All living things must meet certain characteristics in order to be considered living. These include: cellular organization, order, sensitivity, growth, development and reproduction, energy utilization, evolutionary...
There are three Influenza viruses groups, A, B and C, which are part of the Orthomyxoviridae family of (-) strand RNA viruses. These viruses are segmented containing 8 separate gene segments within a nucleocapsid protein (Neumann, G. et al. 2009). The 8 genes in the influenza viral genome encode 11 proteins: two nonstructural proteins (NS1 and NS2), four transcriptase proteins (PB1, PB2, PB1-F2, and PA), two surface glycoproteins (HA and NA), two matrix proteins (M1 and M2) and one...
Chemical classification can be identified using three ways; namely chemical properties, usage and physical form. This physical form known as particulate matter can be recognized using their physical properties such as dust, mist, fumes, gases and vapour. This chapter will look at some particulate matter that can pose health hazard. The occupational disease and condition associated with inhalation of these particulate matters will be discussed with relation between particle size and...
HIV is a global pandemic. Worldwide, it is claimed there are more than 33.3 (31.4-35.3) million people who live with HIV-1 and, to date, it is estimated that 25 million people have died from HIV-1. Only 5 years ago, the incidence rate of HIV-1 infection was 4.1 million and death from AIDS was 2.8 million. The primary mode of transmission is through heterosexual transmission; this equates to 85% of all HIV-1 infections. Although a global pandemic, the highest rates of new HIV-1 infection still...
Barium enema, or better known (GI) examination, is a test to check the large intestine (colon and rectum). The test is used to help diagnose diseases and other problems affecting the large intestine. To view the large intestine is filled with contrast material containing barium. It can highlight specific areas on the desired section and produce a clearer image. This test is done by inserting a contrast material through the tube into the anus. Barium will be out of the body with the stool. Enema...
The Arabidopsis thaliana is a model organism used to study plant processes. In this paper the Eucalyptus CsID gene is investigated. Cellulose is a major component in plant cell walls. Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthase (CesA) genes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to transform Arabidopsis plants in the floral dip method. Transformed plants are selected by antibiotic resistance using hygromycin. The GUS reporter system makes identification of transgenic plants simple. GUS staining...