Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by the HBV virus, a partially double-stranded circular DNA virus belonging to a group of hepatropic DNA viruses (hepadnaviruses) 1, 2 This virus is composed of a nucleocapsid covered with the envelope protein and is transmitted by percutaneous and permucosal exposure to infected blood and other body fluids. HBV depend strongly on the viral-host interaction to carry out viral gene expression due to the limited genome size. 4 In the UK, most of new...
CHAPTER 2 Skin is the largest organ of the human body. It is a continuous membrane or sheet covering the entire body surface which composed of two main layers; the epidermis and the dermis. The thickness of the two layers varies over different regions of the body in which the epidermis is thickest on the palms and soles of the feet whereas the dermis is thickest on the back and thinnest on the palms. The epidermis is the uppermost layer that generates the stratum corneum which provides the...
Water activity and pH can be directly controlled in foods. Inhibitors to growth can be created by adding chemicals -- additives or substances such as salt. In addition, one can adjust the atmosphere using special packaging techniques. Very often food processors use a combination of controls, rather than relying on only one. This is because a one-control system carried to the extreme, can be harsh, making food unacceptable to consumers. The use of multiple controls is called the hurdle concept....
There are two main ideal reactor models that are used for description of flow behaviour. The two categories of reactor are the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the plug flow reactor (PFR). In an ideal CSTR the reactant concentration is uniform throughout the vessel. The formation of dead zones, causing reactant concentration to be low, or feed points, causing reactant concentration to be relatively high, result in non-ideal conditions. In an ideal PFR all reactant and product...
Organic foods are generally considered as better in comparison to the convention foods. This is since they are naturally produced and processed which implies that they are free from chemicals. This means that such food is good for one's health as well as environmental friendly. Such foods contain natural nutrients and minerals that our bodies need for growth, disease resistance and energy production whereas conventional foods contain artificial chemical nutrients which can prove to be...
A total number of 20 consecutive non-repetitive clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and 20 non-repetitive clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained from UTI patients from a tertiary care hospital in Coimbatore. Urine cultures were collected over a period, from June-September 2010, and were subjected to identification and characterization by performing Gram staining, motility and biochemical tests as per standard protocol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done with...
Peripheral T cell activation occurs in secondary lymphoyd organs and its complexity is influenced in several steps. Here we demonstrate the role of Desert Hedgehog (Dhh), a morphogen, in the final stages of T cell development. Analysis of Dhh -/- mouse splenocytes revealed that Dhh does indeed play a role in activation of T lymphocytes. The CD4:CD8 ratio increased in KO models compared to WT suggests that Dhh promotes an increment in the proportion of CD4SP T cells, however, studies on...
This paper deals with the study of the impact of soil processing upon some physical-mechanical properties in the forestry nursery of Iarac. The research carried on is intended to comparatively analyse the physical-mechanical indicators in the classical tillage system and in the minimum tillage system. The experiment consisted in determining those properties after each technical work. Keywords: physical-mechanical properties, forestry nursery, minimum tillage system, soil processing,...
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a family of different isomers of linoleic acid that are found in the meat and dairy products derived from ruminants (Y.L. Ha et al 1987), that have been shown to have an anti carcinogenic properties and anti inflammatory effects upon human cells in vitro (N S. Kelley et al 2007) but curiously apparent proinflammatory affects in vivo in human trials causing insulin resistance and reduced insulin sensitivity (U Risérus et al 2002). CLA is available as a...
ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the performance of cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothirn, against spotted bollworm (SBW) (Earias spp.) at A Research Farm, Shahjahanpur, U.P. and at a farmer's field for the years 2007 and 2008, studies were carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The data of the spotted bollworms was taken from fruiting bodies of 25 plants selected at random. Bifenthrin and cyhalothrin registered lowest number of spotted bollworm...