Any change in copy number involves change in chromosome structure which eventually ends up joining two formerly separated DNA sequences, and is often mediated by DNA rearrangements. Genomic rearrangements involving gain, loss or disruption of dosage sensitive gene influence the phenotype of an organism through duplication, deletion, position effects and gene fusion or conversion events and may lead to genomic disorders [1, 3]. Since DNA rearrangements define DNA changes involving thousand to...
Pauling and Corey were able to develop the precise structure of the peptide bond from the x-ray diffraction patterns of keratins. They found out that the length of the carbon nitrogen bond of proteins was shorter than the actual carbon nitrogen bond. They were also able to describe the presence of four atoms in the peptide bond and pointed out that the two α carbon atoms lie in the same plane such that the oxygen atom of the carbonyl carbon and that the hydrogen atom of the nitrogen lie...
Lactic acid is a hydroxycarboxylic acid, which is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, leather, cosmetic and textile industries. It can be polymerized to biodegradable and biocompatible plastic, i.e. polylactic acid, which has environment-friendly and great potential for replacing petrochemical plastic. Industrially, it can be produced by either chemical synthesis or microbial fermentation. Presently, approximately 90% of lactic acid was produced by lactic acid bacteria fermentation....
Literally many thousands of papers have been published on every aspect of the nitrogen cycle. Critically reviewing them all would (even if possible) have produced an excessively long thesis introductory chapter, and then have resulted in potentially wasteful repetition later, in the more selective and focused introductions in subsequent chapters. The author therefore decided to make this first chapter relatively concise, and use his literature survey selectively to introduce where the ideas...
Though multifunctional glycoprotein α2HS-glycoprotein/human fetuin-A AHSG is involved in atherosclerosis it is not clear whether high or low concentrations are more important. We studied the correlation of serum AHSG with adiponectin, leptin, resistin, CRP and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to see whether its metabolic effects or its involvement in subclinical inflammation are dominant in patients with established coronary disease.Materials and MethodsIn this cross-sectional...
Echogenic bubble formulations have wide applications disease diagnosis and therapy. Therefore, nanobubbles were prepared and the contrast agent function was evaluated in order to study the nanosized bubble's property for ultrasonic imaging. For this purpose Coumarin-6 as a model drug was loaded into nanobubbles to investigate the drug delivery potential to cells. The results showed that the nanobubbles composed of 1% of Tween 80, and 3 mg/ml of lipid worked well as an ultrasonic contrast agent...
The words "genetically modified" constitute a serious misnomer. Humans have bred plants and animals for thousands of years. In selective breeding, we have built into animals and plants gene combinations that are not normally found in nature and that probably would not survive without human intervention. The term "genetically modified" is currently applied to plants and animals that results from adding genes, in particular genes from completely unrelated organisms, to...
Atherosclerosis is a medical term derives from Greek, athere meaning gruel that soft consistency of the core of the plaque (mainly lipid), and sclerosis, meaning thickening or hardening in body artery. Cholesterol of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles is mainly lipid of atherosclerotic plaque that has left the circulation [1,4]. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, which featured by complex accumulation of lipids and rich plaques in the inner layer of the wall of an artery which is...
1. Introduction There are many biological methods for treating wastewater. Among them the most popular processes are suspended growth processes and the boifilm also known as attached growth . Both the above mentioned processes are used to treat wastewater by different mechanisms and variations in their principle of operation for removal of carbonaceous organic matter, nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorous) and production of biorenewable methane. Attached growth or fixed-film methods are...
For the nano-LED, the Ni on the suspended silicon tips and the ZnO nanostructure between the nanogap form a metal-semiconductor-metal junction. A typical MSM junction can be seen in Figure 5-1-1. Figure 5-1-1. Schematic diagram of a metal-semiconductor-metal junction. Basically, the MSM junction has the structure of two Schottky barriers connected back to back. When a voltage is applied, one of the contacts is reverse biased and the other is forward biased. As the voltage increases, the...