95% of NPC patients have a mutation at chromosome 18q11 (locus of NPC1 gene), with the mutations in the remaining patients in the NPC2 gene at chromosome 14q24.3 (Patterson et al, 2010). Mutations in NPC1 and NPC2 give a clinically identical phenotype, with the gene products serving non-redundant functions in the same cellular pathway (Sleat et al, 2004). NPC2 encodes a small (132 amino acids) soluble glycoprotein present in the lysosomal lumen (Babalola et al, 2007). NPC2 has been shown to...
Diabetes Mellitus is thought to have a synergistic effect with CHC. When the two conditions are present together the risk for HCC increases 37-fold. Most intriguing is the evidence that CHC begets development of type-2 DM. Over the past two decades, the causal evidence linking CHC to a two to three fold increase in the prevalence of DM has been established. The proposed mechanisms for this increased risk for carcinogenesis among patients with DM include sustained hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia...
Protein Structure Prediction has significant applications in the fields of drug design, disease prediction and so on. Since PSP has been a great confrontation in the field of Protein Folding Research, this paper presents a novel method for protein using Structural Concealed Markov Model (SCMM). Typically, the contribution of this work has been made for appropriate mapping of protein primary structure to its 2D fold. Moreover, the model incorporates Extended Genetic Algorithm (EGA) for...
Calcium, in addition to its role in maintaining bones and teeth, extracellular calcium ions in the plasma (Caex) also plays a pivotal role in maintaining blood pressure, glucose metabolism and muscle contraction. The Caex balance is mediated by calcium sensing receptor (CaR) in parathyroid glands, kidney and bones. CaR is the first G-protein coupled receptor identified which responds only to Caex and binds to Ca2+ at low affinity. As Ca2+ is the physiological agonist of the receptor, one of...
AIDS is the leading cause of death worldwide in the 15-59 age group, with 20 million dying since the outbreak in 1981 and over 40 million being infected with HIV-1. (Haut LH & Ertl CJ 2009) UNAIDS have suggested that in 2007, more than 33 million are living with the infection, with some areas of Sub-Saharan Africa having a 36% incidence rate in the adult population. (Haut LH & Ertl CJ 2009) HIV CLASSIFICATION AND VIRION STRUCTURE Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), is part of the...
Gestation Period A full term pregnancy, from conception to birth, usually lasts for nine months and is more commonly known as the gestation period. This gestation period can be split into three phases, known as the three trimesters. The first trimester is concerned with the development of the embryo, the second trimester is where the embryo is known as a foetus and foetal development continues and the third trimester is where the baby finishes developing and gains the bulk of...
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide consisting of linked D-glucosamine residues with a variable number of randomly located N-acetyl-glucosamine groups. In vivo, chitosan is degraded by enzymatic hydrolysis. The primary agent is lysozyme, which appears to target acetylated residues50. However, there is some evidence that some proteolytic enzymes show low levels of activity with chitosan. The degradation products are chitosan oligosaccharides of variable length. The study on the biocompatibility...
Due to its low biodegradability, molasses wastewater is usually defined as high-strength industrial wastewater. The possibility and efficiency of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), containing lab-made membrane modules, in treating molasses containing wastewater was studied. The research was conducted in two phases, namely a first fed-batch operation period followed by a continuous MBR operation for the further duration of the experiment. The results showed that more than 80, 90 and 30% of the...
Platyhelminthes are commonly known as flatworms. Some of the examples of Platyhelminthes include tapeworms and flukes. These flatworms usually exist as parasites which feeds on its host or it can exist as non-parasitic animals such as the planarians (Schmidtea mediterranea). On the other side, Annelida are annelids which include mostly earthworms, marine worms and leeches. These annelids are mainly detritivores which feed on sediments that contain microorganism. Moreover, there are also some...
Numerous studies have been conducted and highlighted the beneficial effects of using probiotic feed supplements to enhance the performance and stimulating the immune responses in poultry (Table 5). In general, food animals are often exposed to stress due to physiological (age, health status), psychological (weaning, post-weaning), and environmental (diet, management) factors. This may lead to dysfunction and an increase in permeability of intestinal protective barriers that often results in...