Insect damage causes huge loses of agricultural crops each year. Without proper control measures it is estimated that 35% of current global cotton production would be lost. Though certain insects are considered beneficial in agricultural practices, most of the insects cause huge loses every year especially in developing countries. Based on the method of feeding, the insects affecting the plants are classified as follows (Singh et al., 2005): These insects insert their mouth into the tissue of...
Within this report I am going to investigate the effect of stress on the meat quality of cattle, and outline possible solutions to this issue.What are the effects of stress on meat quality?Stress has a major impact on meat significantly decreasing the quality of it. Energy required for muscle activity is obtained from glycogen in the muscle. Once the animal has been slaughtered the glycogen is converted into lactic acid. Lactic acid is required to produce meat, which is tender and tasteful,...
Early in my graduate career, I was exposed to the community of scientists known as diatomists. Fascinated by the tiny silica skeletons of diatoms, they were intent on understanding the microbial world. The late Patrick Reimer was one of the most influential of these scientists and directly taught most of the current leaders of the field in his summer course at Iowa Lakeside Lab. He was notorious for shouting "think like a diatom" at his students as we waded along the shores of Lake...
On April 14, 2003 the International Human Genome Consortium announced the successful completion of the Human Genome Project. Together with the development of many automated techniques for rapidly obtaining large quantities of genomic data, this milestone resulted in a major paradigm shift in biological research. The traditional hypothesis-driven research paradigm is giving way to the new paradigm of information- or data-driven hypothesis formulation and research. Also the pharmacology field is...
Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is the latest trend in this era. OFDM is a multicarrier modulation technique that has recently found wide adoption in a widespread variety of high-data-rate communication systems, including digital subscriber lines, wireless LANs (802.11a/g/n), digital video broadcasting. Original OFDM signals have high PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) which require expensive radio transmitters and receivers having high power amplifiers operating in...
This research paper is mainly focus on Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) which is a human nuclear DNA virus that is able to replicate in different types of cells of many species. The virus has 12 envelope surface glycoprotein which leads entry to wide range of host. Unlike many other viruses, HSV has three different receptors, and it uses broadly distributed heparan moiety of cell surface glycosaminoglycans for attachment. However HSV encounters several obstacles that blocks replication within...
The study population consisted of 83 type 2 diabetes patients and 25 controls. We evaluated antrophometric and metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species, MPO levels and leukocyte-endothelium interactions and determined their correlation with a chronic complication associated with type 2 diabetic patients; namely nephropathy. Results: Serum levels of glucose, the rate of ROS, and MPO concentration were higher in type 2 diabetic patients and nephropathy was detected in 43.0% of our patients....
Poor solubility of drug substance is a major obstacle in the development of drug formulations. One of the most persistent problems faced by drugs with poor aqueous solubility is that their oral delivery is frequently associated with implications of low bioavailability and lack of dose proportionality. More than 40% drugs coming from high through output screening are poorly soluble in water. Currently only 8% of new drug candidates have both high solubility and permeability According...
Plants were collected in the Tirupathi hills. Healthy plants were chosen. The viral, bacterial or fungal infected plants were discarded. The healthy plants were dried at moderate temperature in the dark for a short period of time and preserved.6.3 PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDYThe plant material when fresh was subjected to macroscopic analysis in order to confirm its identity air dried plant material was finely ground in a suitable mill in to a powder. Extraction was carried out with soxhlet apparatus...
INTRODUCTION From the name itself, Carbohydrates are hydrates of carbons that are polar in nature. The building blocks of carbohydrates are monosaccharides which are simple sugars due to their low molecular weight. Carbohydrates are the product of photosynthesis from the condensation of carbon dioxide that requires light and chlorophyll. Carbohydrates have a vital role in the nutrition of organisms since it is the major source of energy. ATP is energy released by plants and it is the needed by...