There are number of ways to represent components and connectors thereon within the system, in the software architecture (Gacek et al., 1995). These started from the traditional methods such as topology method (Allah, 1996). Large number of these approaches results in formation of the similar architecture with different styles (Garlan & Shaw, 1993). Reliability block diagrams are one of the modern approaches. This is considered as an important way of representing the logic connections for...
Biomass is an alternative renewable feedstock for the production of transportation fuels to the current feedstock which is fossil fuels. Biomass encompasses all materials synthesised by biological processes. It is currently the only renewable feedstock that exists.1 Fossil fuels are the current feedstocks for the majority of fuels. Fossil fuels, usually referring to coal, petroleum, and natural gas, are not renewable feedstocks because they take millions of years to form. Current reserves...
The reaction kinetics of acid-catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil in excess methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), for possible use as biodiesel have been studied in recent times. Rate of mixing, feed composition (molar ratio oil: methanol: acid) and temperature were independent variables. There was no significant difference in the yield of FAME when the rate of mixing was in the turbulent range 100 to 600 rpm. The oil : methanol : acid molar ratios and the temperature...
In the cytosol, free fatty acids undergo esterification to become CoA which generates a fatty acyl CoA moiety through an ATP dependent process catalyzed by a family of fatty acyl CoA synthase (FACS) enzymes (Figure 3). The fatty acyl CoAs are then taken into cardiac mitochondria in the form of complex proteins formed by fatty acylcarnitine moieties using the carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) located in the outer membrane of mitochondria and then are converted back into fatty acyl CoAs...
Eukaryotic cells, by definition, keep their DNA in a separate membrane-bound organelle, the nucleus; they also typically contain 3-30 times as many genes in prokaryotes and in many cases contain thousands more non-coding DNA. The large amount of non-coding DNA is responsible for the complex regulation of gene expression. INTRODUCTION It was thought that a gene contained all the information needed to construct a complete protein, such as an enzyme. However, it has now been proven that many...
My patient is a 48 year old female patient with progressive rheumatoid arthritis who has been taking diclofenac sodium 75mg twice daily. RA is a chronic inflammatory disease which typically affects the joints. 1,2 The prevalence of getting this autoimmune disease is about 1% of the population. 2 In general, patients with RA will present symptoms of swollen, stiff and painful joints, which worsen in the wee hours of the morning. 1 The pathophysiology of RA still remains unclear, however, it was...
Humira, which generic name is Adalimumab, is the first recombinant human IgGI monoclonal antibody (proteins that are made in a laboratory, similar to the antibodies that our body produces when are exposed to a disease) specific for human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF). Humira was developed by Abbot Laboratories as a part of scientific collaboration with Cambridge Antibody, and it was approved by the FDA, on December 31, 2002. Humira can be used only by order of a physician and must be dispensed by...
The process of joining two particles reactants, in order to form new product/products is called a reaction. The pace of a specific thing can be measured using the rate i.e., it describes how slow or fast a thing is. Rate is a measurement of the change that occurs in single unit of time, and its appropriate measurements are seconds, minutes, hours or even days. The pace with which the reactants react, is termed as the rate of the chemical reaction. Usually, for finding the rate of a reaction,...
This chapter presents the study of optimization of software testing techniques by using Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and specification based testing. Some new categories of genetic codes are applied in some problem optimizations for the generation of reliable software test cases based on the specification of the software. These GAs have found their application in detecting errors in the software packages. For example, based on new genetic strategy and GAs symmetric code is developed. In the current...
Our scenario is 64 year old male patient with a liver transplant who requires an antiproliferative immunosuppressant. Firstly, we will discuss a liver transplant in general with some evidence of survival rates statistic from other studies. Then we will look into the complications that might occur after the liver transplant and what are the best treatment options available for this particular patient.1.0.2 Liver transplantStrazl and Calne established the fundamental techniques to perform liver...