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Adenosine Triphosphate is a ribonucleotide 5-triphosphate that functions as a phosphate group donor in metabolism. ATP carries chemical energy between metabolic pathways by serving as a shared intermediate coupling endergonic and exergonic reactions within the body. During exercise, ATP is required to fuel the body's energy demands. Therefore in the form of a hypothetical race, this essay will explain how energy is utilised during exercise. At the beginning of the race, even at rest before...
Horticulture is an important part of agriculture. The first definition of horticulture included those crops normally cultivated in gardens such as flowers, vegetables, fruits and ornamentals. These crops became known as "horticulture crops" and were separated from field crops such s corn, wheat and cotton. The word horticulture comes from Latin meaning "the cultivation of gardens." The "hanging gardens" of Babylon (one of the seven wonders of the ancient world)...
THE SALICYLATES, ASPIRIN, AND THE BIRTH OF ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: Organic compounds were so called originally because they were made by living organisms. Now, it is possible to make millions of organic compounds in the laboratory. What they all have in common is a carbon backbone. 1. Identify the ACETYL GOUP, THE CARBOXYLIC ACID GROUP, the HYDROXYL GROUP AND THE METHYL GROUP on aspirin and methyl salicylate. 2. Trace the salicylate carbon skeleton on salicylin. The following essay was written...
1. INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis is a disease spread by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which infects approximately one third of the world's population, resulting in 3 million deaths annually (1). When a person inhales the aerosol containing tubercle bacilli, the microbes enter into the alveolar sacs. They are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages, resulting in potent cell-mediated immune responses and the formation of granulomas. This granuloma mainly consists of T cells and M. tuberculosis infected...
Autumn flowering is commonly observed in many horticultural plants, but rare in tree peonies. Hormones play key role in flowering processes. This study therefore, determined the trends in endogenous hormones (gibberellic acid (GA3), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinin (CTK) and abscisic acid (ABA)) and carbohydrates (sucrose, reducing sugar and starch) in buds of autumn-flowering tree peony (AFP) and non autumn-flowering tree peony (NAFP) and their possible roles in flowering mechanism during...
Cryopreservation is becoming an important application due to its uses in various fields like medical science, aquaculture and also in the conservation programme. In cryopreservation cells are stabilised specifically at very low temperature that is -1960C or 77K. Cryoprotective agents are added to prevent ice formation at this much low temperature. In this research glycerol has used as a cryoprotective agent in different concentration of 10%, 15% and 20%. This cryoprotective agent may...
Cobalt is an essential ultra trace mineral that is the base for the vitamin B-12 molecule, which is the most important function of cobalt.  It has been known that this mineral is vital for human nutrition [66]. The body uses this vitamin for numerous purposes. Vitamin B-12 is necessary for the normal formation of all cells, especially red blood cells. Vitamin B-12 also helps vitamin C to perform its functions, and is necessary for the proper digestion of the food that we eat. Additionally,...
Montelukast is a potent and selective antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (cysLT1). It competitively antagonize cysLT1 receptor mediated bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability and recruitment of eosinophils. Leukotriene receptor inhibitors are compounds of a new pharmacological class for asthma management and their discovery had made a significant impact on treatment strategies of asthma management. Montelukast is available in salt form as Montelukastum Sodium and...
Published in the lancet June 2010. The Lancet has an impact factor of 38·28. The journal is currently ranked second out of 153 journals in the general medicine category (2011 Journal Citation Reports®, Thomson Reuters 2012). COX-2 selective NSAIDs were developed to provide anti-infl ammatory therapy; avoiding COX-1 inhibition and sparing the enzyme in the gut supports mucosal integrity. Several large outcome studies 19,27,28 have shown reductions in upper...
Single carbohydrates or sugars are called monosaccharides; Polysacharrides are many single sugars combined.Polysaccharides store excess sugar in glycogen in animals. (Author unknown, date unknown) Protein A protein is built from protein synthesis with amino acids. The structure of a protein is a chain of amino acids called polypeptides. "Each protein within the body has a specific function. Some proteins are involved in structural support, while others are involved in bodily movement or in...