The apical-basal cell polarity determinant Crumbs regulates Hippo signaling in Drosophila via Expanded Introduction Crumbs is a transmembrane domain protein with a large extracellular domain and a short intracellular domain. The extracellular domain contains 28 epidermal growth factor-like repeats and 3 laminin-G like repeats, and the intracellular domain contains two conserved motifs, a juxtamembrane motif and a PDZ binding motif (9).B. ResultsCrumbs gain of function causes overgrowth and...
The European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. plays an important role in pollinating flowering plants and in conserving and promoting biodiversity and agricultural productivity (Klein et al. 2007). One third of the total human diet is dependent on insect-pollinated plants, predominately by the European honeybee (McGregor 1976). A number of crops either depend mainly on or are benefited by honeybee pollination. In North America, for example, honeybees pollinate no fewer than 90 crops (Partap 2011)...
There is currently a lot of debate and controversy over the Neanderthal genome as it is a relatively new topic that is being investigated. We are well aware that the Neanderthal is the most closely related ancestor to the present day humans that are around today. However there is still a large scale debate over how closely related we are in terms of genetics. (Hublin and Pääbo et al). The first insight into the Neanderthal genome occured in 1997, where mitochondrial DNA was...
All research chemicals were purchased from Sigma Aldrich St. Louis, Missouri, USA, Lancaster Co. Ward Hill, MA, USA, S.D. Fine Chem. Ltd, Spectrochem Pvt. Ltd, Himedia and Loba Chemicals and used as such for the reactions. Solvents except laboratory reagent grade were dried and purified according to the literature when necessary. Reactions were monitored by thin-layer chromatog-raphy (TLC) on pre-coated silica gel plates from E. Merck and Co. (Darmstadt, Germany).4.1.2 InstrumentsMelting points...
Chromosome analysis or karotyping corresponds to the study of number and structure of the 46 human chromosomes (Tjio and Levan et al,1956; Ford et & Hamerton et 1956) and is accomplished through the analysis of bands created by banding techniques (Vogel, F. & Motulsky et al). In a routine chromosome analysis, Metaphase slides are prepared from actively dividing cells which have been arrested in the M phase of mitosis by the addition of a mitotic inhibitor, colchicine. These cells are...
This chapter will review past and current research on particle thermophoresis in solution. At the beginning of the chapter, a brief introduction to the thermophoresis and other closely related processes such as particle thermophoresis in gases will be elaborated and discussed. Next, the experimental methods dealing with particle thermophoresis in solution are presented. The major differences of these experimental methods are based on the methods that how to generate a constant microscale...
The Arenaviridae are a group of highly pathogenic emerging viruses with worldwide distribution. [nunberg] 29 Arenavirus species have been identified, of which at eight are known etiologic agents of hemorrhagic fevers in humans (see table 1), and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Arenaviridae are geographically and phylogenetically divided into two serogroups: The Old World and the New World Complexes. They are generally associated with rodent-transmitted disease in humans...
William's Syndrome William's syndrome is a developmental disorder with multisystem defects like congenital vascular and heart disease, dimorphic facial features, growth deficiency, infantile hypercalcemia, mental retardation, unique cognitive profile, and a characteristic personality.[1] It is estimated that Williams Syndrome affects 1 in 7,500 - 20,000 people. William's syndrome (WS), also known as William's Beuern Syndrome, was first described by a cardiologist from New Zealand, Dr. J. C. P....
They are direct descendants of now extinct dinosaurs and thus are one of the oldest species on the earth.They live mainly in Africa, Australia and Asia,America.Crocodile have 23 species, the largest one is Saltwater Crocodile and smallest one is Dwarf Crocodile.crocodiles are known to live for 50 to 60 years though it may be hundred of years.They are the world's largest living reptiles.They are named as "living fossils"because of the fact that Crocodilians appeared on earth about 240...
Bread has always been considered as the staple food of choice in Northern Africa and it was probably the first ever man produced processed food, and still remains the most universally accepted. It is universally accepted as a very convenient form of food that has desirability to all population rich and poor, rural and urban. Its products and its production techniques vary from country to country. In Libya it making depends on the imported quantities of wheat grains and its flour. This country...