Dengue is an arbovirus disease caused by four dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) and transmitted to humans by mosquito as a vector. 2.1.1 History overview It was believed that dengue viral infection has a long history. First reported cases that were believed to be dengue-like syndrome were recorded in China in 992 AD. They were followed by the sporadic outbreaks in the French West Indies in 1935 and in Panama in 1699. However, the major epidemics of illness believed to be...
Abstract The aim of this work was to study the induction of the synthesis of ROS-scavenging molecules and the evolution of enzymatic activities such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) as a function of different availabilities of reduced nitrogen. Chicory seedlings were grown in nutritive solution for 35 days in controlled conditions. On the 14th day, one third of the plants was transferred into a nutritive solution containing (NH4)2SO4 60 mM, one third was transferred...
Microbial contamination causes product degradation and contamination or invasion of toxic material into living cells by the bacteria. Microbial contamination is a serious case especially for those suffer under immunodeficiency syndrome e.g. AIDS patient or those who received chemotherapy. Research also found out that some fungi are potentially dangerous to this group of people due to the biologically active compounds released known as mycotoxins which is lethal to human health. (Cioffi N, 2005)...
Daniel Degreiss, a 17-year old Afro-Caribbean male, arrived in A & E very short of breath. He has sickle-cell disease, and has been in and out of hospital with crises all his life. His mother reported that he had become increasingly ill over the past week. Initially she thought he had a cold; then he began to complain of a pain in the right side of his chest that hurt him when he breathed and when he coughed. He had argued with his mother for two or three days previously because he had not...
Steroid hormones are lipid soluble molecules which are all derived from cholesterol via a number of enzyme reactions in the gonads and adrenal glands. Steroid hormones can be classified into 5 groups depending on the receptors they bind to. Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, and progestagens. [1,2] Over the pass 2 decades there has been a traditional hypothesis that is accepted by all scientist of how steroid hormones carry out their actions. This hypothesis is commonly...
Cardiovascular disease is a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels, and include coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/). According to WHO, an estimated 17 million people die of CVDs each year, making it the leading cause of death worldwide. Expanding prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and...
In order for researchers to be able to compare and contrast their findings there must be an agreement between them in what defines an alcoholic. Therefore most researchers use the definition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, [DSM-IV] (APA 1994) and World Health Organizations International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The ICD-10 definitions are similar to that of the DSM-IV. However, their diagnosis focuses more on an interrelation of...
In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that reduced astrocytic uptake of neuronally released glutamate, alterations in expression of glial fibrillary acid protein, a major component of the glial filament network, and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), a water channel protein contributes to the astrocyte swelling leading to brain edema and intracranial pressure in acute liver failure (ALF). However, there is no evidence available to-date to suggest that these alterations occur in patients with ALF. In order...
Kaposis sarcoma, the most common cancer in HIV-infected person, was primarily discovered by a Hungarian dermatologist Moritz Kaposi in 1872. He describing the skin lesion in five men in his publication entitle Idiopathisches multiples Pigmentsarkom der Haut (idiopathic multiple pigmented sarcoma of the skin). After two decades another premium dermatologist, Kobner, designated the disease as Kaposi's sarcoma which is now commonly known as classic KS (cited in Antman and Chang, 2000). Over...
Hygromycin B is one of the aminoglycoside antibiotics which destroy bacteria, fungi and higher eukaryotes by affecting proteins synthesis. The antibiotic interferes with translocation and cause mistranslation at the 70S ribosome. Hygromycin B is produced by the Streptomyceshygroscopicus. The most unique biological activity of Hygromycin B is its antiparasitic effect in swine. However, the quantities required to prevent growth of sensitive organism in vitro are large compared with those of most...