Eukaryotic cells contain a definite membrane-bound organelle, the nucleus, which carries genetic material, organized in the form of multiple DNA molecules in complex with a variety of proteins to form chromosomes. Chromosomes contain genes, their regulatory elements and other DNA bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functioning. The total length of the cellular DNA is upto hundred thousand times a cell's length, hence the entire chromosomal DNA is held in the nucleus,...
Mastitis is a major health problem in dairy sheep flocks worldwide. It is associated with reduced productivity, low weaning weights, lamb mortality and the culling of affected ewes. The lactation incidence of clinical mastitis in the ewe is generally lower than 5%, while the prevalence of subclinical mastitis is variable and ranges from 10 to 30% or more. Staphylococci are the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections (IMI), the more frequent isolates being S. aureus in clinical...
Generally, cadherins have been studied for their vital roles in cell adhesion. They comprise a superfamily of transmembrane proteins that link adjacent cells via calcium-dependent homophilic interactions (Yagi and Takeichi 2000). E-cadherin is a tumor suppressor protein whose loss is thought to promote tumor growth and invasion via a mechanism involving -catenin (Wong and Gumbiner 2003).-catenin was originally identified as a cytoplasmic component of adherens junctions, where it...
The objective of this article is 5-aminolevulinic acid and its application for photodynamic treatment. 5-Aminolevulinic acid is a prodrug widely used for treatment of different cancer forms, especially skin cancers. The main subjects of this article are different preparations of 5-aminolevulinic acid, comparison of the methods, excipients and other factors that influence the permeation of 5-aminolevulinic acid through skin. Therefore, these factors are one of the main determinators of the...
Staphylococci are responsible for the numerous medical problems like surgical site infections (SSIs), endocarditis and various skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Staphylococcal infections are developed as a result of various medical advancements such as use of catheters and immunosuppressants. Staphylococcal infections are mainly because of two types of species: Staphylococcal aureus and (Coagulase +ve staphylococci) and coagulase -ve staphylococci species (Casey et. al.,...
Although much has been learned about specific H. pylori virulence factors, little is currently understood about why some H. pylori infected individuals progress to develop gastric cancer while others remain asymptomatic. The goal of this thesis was to better understand the association between different polymorphisms in CagA and VacA and disease outcome. Specifically, we showed that East Asian CagA (EPIYA-ABD) was linked to progression to gastric cancer in a South Korean population (39). In...
Over the last few centuries, the face of healthcare in the world has radically changed. With advances in the scientific method and empirical observations, medicine has been able to advance to an unprecedented level. As the world has become increasingly industrialized, population plaguing epidemics have been nearly eradicated. Diseases such as cholera, tuberculosis, smallpox, and typhoid had plagued large populations for hundreds of years. As medicine was improved and the prevalence of these...
When a superconductor is placed in a weak external magnetic field H, the field penetrates for only a short distance , called the penetration depth, after which it decays rapidly to zero. This is called the Meissner effect. For most superconductors, the penetration depth is on the order of a hundred nm. The Meissner effect is sometimes confused with the "perfect diamagnetism" one would expect in a perfect electrical conductor: according to Lenz's law, when a changing magnetic field is...
Lipitor is one of the greatest discoveries in the pharmaceutical industry. After generating a whopping $12.9 million dollars in previous years and reaches the number one staus of belling selling drug between 3002- 2004, it is going to face a downslide as itl oses its oatent exoiry in Novemebr 2011. Lipitor reduced low density lipoprotein levels in patienst sudffering from familial hyppercholesteeromia a rare genetic disoreder.From the molecule reglected by a marketingcompany to a drug giant....
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) are rare malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. It has been labelled as the most common mesenchymal malignancy of the GIT. [1] The progress made in this relatively recently defined entity is fascinating. The better understanding about the molecular mechanisms of the disease made it possible to incorporate successfully targeted therapy into the treatment armamentarium. FDA approval of Imatinib (IM) for the management of metastatic GIST came first in...