Chromatography is a laboratory process that occurs in several steps and is used to separate mixtures of various chemicals into their individual components. The governing principle of chromatography is that different chemicals in a mixture have different degrees of dissolving in a liquid or sticking to a solid surface. In other words, chromatography can identify a chemical and separate it from a dense mixture of other chemicals and show it on a surface.  Various chemicals in a mixture have...
The main tasks for this project are doing desk study and field study on groundwater level at two different locations in Belfast. The locations of the boreholes which have been chosen for this project are Lady Dixon and Orchardville which located at River Lagan. The data are collected and extracted from the well, and then it has to be analyzed and evaluated. This project has been supervised by Dr. Ulrich Ofterdinger. Data has been gathered from different sources such as the previous researchers...
Breast cancers arise to be one of the highest mortality facto worldwide. Many developed and advanced diagnostic and therapeutic techniques are using for detection of breast cancers. Tissue microarrays technology (TMAs) is one of the most reliable, specific, sensitive technique using worldwide. Many researches and studied proved the advantages and usefulness of TMAs technology in the diagnosis and development of therapy for breast and other carcinoma cases.Introduction:Normal human breasts...
Halogenation is rarely found to occur in certain living organisms to increase the potency of compounds produced by them. Thousands of halogenated compounds have been identified in nature and interestingly quite a large number of them possess therapeutic values. Among the halogenation, Chlorination is found in most cases followed by bromination. The halogenation of natural compounds occurs in organisms through a series of oxidative regulated by specific enzymes. Enzymatic Halogenation reactions...
Ticks harbour several bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that can cause severe infections in domestic animals and humans. Active observation of the tick vector can present insight into the occurrence and distribution of significant pathogens in the environment. Nucleic-acid based detection of tick-borne bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens requires the extraction of DNA (total nucleic acids) from ticks. Traditional methods for nucleic acid detection are restricted to extraction of...
Food safety, satisfaction and quality have always been an important concern of consumers. Several pathogens such as E. coli (Shiga toxin and verocytotoxin-producers), S. aureus, etc are recognized as important human pathogens of animal origin that are responsible for mastitis, bloody diarrhea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome in humans and constitute the most important causes of food-borne disease and therefore is a major health concern and is the most economically important...
Background: Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) encodes the liver-secreted enzyme of the same name, a catalyst for the hydroxylation of tyrosine from phenylalanine, a rate-limiting step in the catabolism of the latter. This reaction only occurs in the presence of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as well as molecular oxygen and iron (1). Mutations in the PAH gene are generally caused by a change of an amino acid, for example, the change of arginine to tryptophan (2, 3). The numerous possible...
Bark of the Anogeissus latifolia was collected near from Siruvani dam, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu and authenticated by Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Southern circle, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The authentication certificate number is BSI/SC/5/23/09-10/tech-287(annexure). The Bark was separated from adulterants, shade dried and powdered coarsely. It was packed in air-tight container up to the completion of study.2. EXTRACTION OF PLANT MATERIALAbout 150 gm of air dried powdered plant material was...
Using data from the CDF, lifetime histograms for lifetimes of the , Bs and B0 mesons were produced. A fit was then applied to the histograms to obtain values for the lifetimes of the mesons. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) detects collision products from the Tevatron, which accelerates protons and anti-protons to a centre of mass energy of approximately 2.0 TeV. At this energy, a large number of B mesons are produced, allowing a study of them to be conducted. The...
The development of new drugs may have serious consequences. It was shown that monoclonal antibodies canelicit anaphylactic reactions due to pre-existing IgE antibodies. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies are becoming more important in the treatment of immune mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and cancers. However treatment with these foreign-protein-derived agents can lead to acute or delayed reactions, because the human immune system reacts by developing...