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Globally, it can be seen that instead of searching and developing the synthetic medicines, human beings are now treasuring the plants for their medicinal values. The reasons for these are various, but the most common would be cynicism with the result of or the lack of faith in the medicine therapy and trepidation about the toxicity and safety of modern drugs1. This new drift is developed due to the enough far-reaching experimental modification and testing performed on diverse chemical moieties....
Plasma CellThe myelomaUK charity describes myeloma as a bone marrow cancer arising from plasma cells which have formed from b-lymphocytes. Plasma cells are found in the bone marrow/myelium. Myeloma is a type of haematology malignancy, meaning the plasma cells produced in the bone marrow or peripheral lymphoid tissue are malignant. (Benacerraf & Unanue 1979) Depending on the age of the plasma cells sometimes the malignancy of cells can be altered or destroyed if they do not show signs of...
Leishmania are protozoal parasite of the family of Trypanosomatidae responsible for Leishmaniasis. These are obligate parasites that are transmitted to the mammalian organism by a bite from a sandfly. In nature there are more than 700 species of sandflies of which roughly about 70 are known to be vectors of leishmaniasis (Lane, 1993). Based on were they are found, Leishmania can be divided into 2 different categories, those found in the Old world (Africa, Europe and Asia), and transmitted by...
Synthetic polymers affected the modern life so badly that its hard to imagine the world without them. From last few decades, polymers are not only used in the automotive industry, semiconductor industry but are also widely used in the more advanced fields like nanotechnology, pharmaceutical industry in drug delivery and biomaterials (Hamerton 2002). Polymers or macromolecules are very large molecules with high molecular weight. Scientists are mainly focussing on the synthesis of polymers with...
The Human Genome Project provided a map of the human genome. However, it did not predict how the genome is packaged into chromatin. It is important to know how the genome is packaged into chromatin because this dictates how a differential expression of genes at different times in the course of development will occur. This, in essence is the study of the epigenome. The human epigenome project was, therefore, launched to provide better understanding of the human epigenome. Epigenetic processes...
The development of biotechnology has become widespread in clinical laboratories for several purposes and one example of its progress is flow cytometry, which has the ability of analysing numerous features of single cell in a short period of time, thus accelerating the diagnosis of diseases and treatment monitoring. There are two types of scattered light: forward scattered (FSC), which is detected by the forward detector at a slight angle in the forward direction and thus is proportional to the...
Abstract. The purpose of this research is to search for motifs directly at binding and catalytic sites called reactive motifs, and then to predict enzyme functions from the discovered reactive motifs. The main challenge is that the data of binding, or catalytic sites is only available in the range 3.34% of all enzymes, and many of each data provides only one sequence record. The other challenge is the complexity of motif combinations to predict enzyme functions. In this paper, to search for...
Supraglottic airway devices are now widely used for surgery requiring general anesthesia. The laryngeal mask airway and similar supraglottic airway devices use an inflatable cuff to wedge into the upper oesophagus and provide a perilaryngeal seal (Miller DM 2004). They provide a perilaryngeal seal with an inflatable cuff and are an alternative to tracheal intubation. Inflatable masks provide an airway seal but can negatively impact on how these devices are inserted, how they are positioned and...
The therapeutic technology of stem cells has long been a dream of medical sciences but recent discoveries and technical advances have brought this dream closer to being a reality. Stem cells are usually defined as undifferentiated cells capable of self-renewal that can differentiate into more than one specialized cell type. Such cells are often classified on the bases of their original source as either embryonic or adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are derived from the early embryo. Adult...
Formation of a protein drug complex is termed as drug-protein binding. Drug protein binding may be a reversible or an irreversible process. Irreversible drug protein binding is usually as a result of chemical activation of drug, when then attaches strongly to the protein or macromolecule by covalent chemical bonding. Reversible drug protein binding implies that the drug binds the protein with weaker chemical bonds such as hydrogen bonds or vanderwaals forces. The amino acids that compose the...