Forests floors would be piled high with organic matter without the help of soil micro and macro organisms. Plants would not grow due to lack of nutrition, herbivores would cease to exist due to lack of food, and the beautiful outdoors we admire would not be alive and thriving. Microorganisms play a major role in the recycling of soil nutrients that allow life to exist, turning organic matter to proteins and nutrients in a form that can later be used by macro organisms. Nitrogen fixation is one...
INTRODUCTION Throughout this presentation, I will give you an overview of stem cell science, as well as a primer on the structures and functions of human stem cells and tissues. I will provide you with the basic information required to know how and why stem cell researchers do what they do in the lab and break down the apparently unique properties of various stem cells and why they inspire so much hope for treating or curing so many devastating illnesses. Because the field of stem cell research...
A COMPOSITE MATERIAL is a macroscopic combination of two or more distinct materials, having a recognizable interface between them. However, as a common practical definition, composite materials may be restricted to emphasize those materials that contain a continuous matrix constituent that binds together and provides form to an array of a stronger, stiffer reinforcement constituent. The resulting composite material has a balance of structural properties that is superior to either constituent...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, meningitis and otitis. Epidemiological studies have associated mutations in the genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV with fluoroquinolone resistance7,23, but resistance to fluoroquinolones can also be mediated by active efflux2,4-6,12,28. Until recently, the pneumococcal efflux phenotype was associated with one efflux pump, PmrA11, but it now appears that other efflux pumps are...
A lower gastrointestinal series, also called barium enema is a medical procedure used to examine and diagnose the problem with human colon (large intestine). X-ray pictures are taken while barium sulfate fill the colon through the inspection rectum.This used to study changes in bowel habits, pain, no abdominal mass, malaena (blood in the stool) or gastric obstruction. Because of the severity of the reaction when the barium enters circulation, it is contraindicated in patients who had undergone...
A 35 year old female patient has been diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Women make up 70% of the MS population but this gender preference remains unexplained. Thus, this patient is naturally more susceptible to getting MS as the patient is a female and falls into the 20-40 year old age bracket. In Scotland, 1 in 500 people have MS with women almost twice more likely than men to get the disease in general1,2. Also, about 1800 to 3400 people are newly diagnosed...
INTRODUCTION: BIOINFORMATICS is a field of science where conceptualizing combined knowledge of computer sciences, information technology and biology. This is software technology used for storing the biological databases and retrieving the information about proteomic and genomic genetic interactions in large scale. The simplest way to describe BIOINFORMATICS is shotgun marriage between biology and information technology. PARK2 gene is the largest gene in human beings. For retrieving information...
We applied an immunoscreening technique, In Vivo-Induced Antigen Technology (IVIAT), to identify immunogenic bacterial proteins expressed in humans bacteremic with Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A, the cause of paratyphoid fever. We were able to assign a functional classification to 15 of 20 proteins identified by IVIAT. Of these 15, the majority represent proteins with known or potential roles in the pathogenesis of S. enterica. These include proteins implicated in fimbrial structure,...
2. Wnt signalling plays a critical role in programming embryonic development (ref). In Canonical Wnt pathway, secreted Wnt ligands bind to frizzled family receptors (FZ) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-6 (LRP6) activating Dishevelled (Dvl). Dvl inactivates "destruction complex." Phosphorylation of LRP6 is induced by Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK3) and Casein Kinase Iα (CK1α). Axin interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of LRP-6 which provides a docking site...
Bioluminescence is a scientific phenomenon that is complex in character because luminous organisms possess unique light-producing chemical reactions and have varied methods of controlling light. Luminous organisms do not fall under order of animals but are unevenly distributed across multiple animal orders. Furthermore, luminous organisms are often adapted to specialized environments and can be difficult to physically research. This paper will cover the background of bioluminescence, luminous...