Cardiovascular disease is a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels, and include coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/). According to WHO, an estimated 17 million people die of CVDs each year, making it the leading cause of death worldwide. Expanding prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and...
In order for researchers to be able to compare and contrast their findings there must be an agreement between them in what defines an alcoholic. Therefore most researchers use the definition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, [DSM-IV] (APA 1994) and World Health Organizations International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The ICD-10 definitions are similar to that of the DSM-IV. However, their diagnosis focuses more on an interrelation of...
In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that reduced astrocytic uptake of neuronally released glutamate, alterations in expression of glial fibrillary acid protein, a major component of the glial filament network, and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), a water channel protein contributes to the astrocyte swelling leading to brain edema and intracranial pressure in acute liver failure (ALF). However, there is no evidence available to-date to suggest that these alterations occur in patients with ALF. In order...
Kaposis sarcoma, the most common cancer in HIV-infected person, was primarily discovered by a Hungarian dermatologist Moritz Kaposi in 1872. He describing the skin lesion in five men in his publication entitle Idiopathisches multiples Pigmentsarkom der Haut (idiopathic multiple pigmented sarcoma of the skin). After two decades another premium dermatologist, Kobner, designated the disease as Kaposi's sarcoma which is now commonly known as classic KS (cited in Antman and Chang, 2000). Over...
Hygromycin B is one of the aminoglycoside antibiotics which destroy bacteria, fungi and higher eukaryotes by affecting proteins synthesis. The antibiotic interferes with translocation and cause mistranslation at the 70S ribosome. Hygromycin B is produced by the Streptomyceshygroscopicus. The most unique biological activity of Hygromycin B is its antiparasitic effect in swine. However, the quantities required to prevent growth of sensitive organism in vitro are large compared with those of most...
Nanotechnology can be defined as a system of innovative methods to understand, control, measure and manipulate matter at near-atomic scale to change the properties and functions of materials and produce new materials, structures and devices. A number of physical phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. Size is an important property which affects various other properties like increasing the surface area to volume ratio, chemical reactivity, absorption capability...
Neurosteroid DHEA, produced by neurons and glia, affects multiple processes in the brain, including neuronal survival and neurogenesis during development and in aging. However no specific receptor has been reported to date for this important neurosteroid. We provide evidence that DHEA binds with high affinity to pro-survival TrkA and pro-death p75NTR membrane receptors of neurotrophin NGF, acting as a neurotrophic factor: 1) the anti-apoptotic effects of DHEA were reversed by siRNA against...
The 21st century has become a rapidly evolving time in terms of Medical understandings and breakthroughs. The use of Biological sciences such as developmental biology, molecular microbiology, regenerative biology and many more have enhanced our insight and understanding in the causes of many medical conditions and diseases at a molecular and cellular level thus providing us with more knowledge and targets to treat such conditions/diseases and prevent them if not already done so in the near...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are molecules containing oxygen that are highly reactive due to the presence of unpaired valence electrons. ROS are formed through the course of many metabolic processes including energy production by the mitochondrial respiratory chain (1). These ROS are often the cause of oxidative stress in which high levels of ROS result in damage to cell structure and loss of function (2), but may also be involved as redox signals (3). Endogenous ROS lead to reversibly...
SUMOylation was initially identified as a reversible post-translational modification that controls a variety of cellular processes including replication, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair [1-3]. The growing list of SUMO substrates includes TFs and epigenetic regulators implying the involvement of SUMO modification system in regulating transcriptional repression [4] and in initiating and maintaining silenced heterochromatin [5, 6]. The regulation of SUMOylation has been associated with a...