Caffeine is a drug that is commonly accepted around the world as part of a normal eating pattern, with around 90 of adults consuming it daily (Burke, 2008). Caffeine has been used for consumption since the sixteenth century and has now become the fuel for modern society (Stamford, 1989). Caffeine has become so popular due to its benefits of improving alertness, mood and behaviour via the central nervous system (Williams et al., 1987). Williams (1991) found it is one of the most widely consumed...
Increase in oxidative stress implicated in several other metabolic risk factors such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. Reactive oxygen metabolites, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2-) or hydroxyl radicals (⋅OH), as a by-product of oxidative metabolism can damage the cells resulting lipid peroxidation, modification of protein and nucleic acids. Excess of hydroxyl free radicals are the major factor for the peroxidative damage to lipoproteins present in the blood,...
Rapid and accurate diagnosis is a corner stone in effective clinical management and infection control of tuberculosis [26,27]. Despite recent advances in conventional TB laboratory tests such as smear microscopy and culture methods, they still lack either accuracy or speed needed to fight the emerging TB infections. Although Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy is rapid, specific and inexpensive, it has limited sensitivity (45% - 80% with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB cases) and poor...
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria which has a curve rod shaped structure. On basis of the type of species, the bacteria can be either S-shaped or comma-shaped. They are facultative anaerobes, which mean they can sustain without oxygen. They are highly motile organisms, usually consisting of a single polar flagellum to locomote. This flagellum is surrounded by a sheath continuous to the outer membrane of the cell wall. The bacteria lose their flagella once they become endosymbionts...
Emphysema is associated with high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Emphysema. Methods: A total number of 80 subjects comprising of 40 healthy controls and 40 Emphysema cases were studied. In all the subjects, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated. Results: The level of whole...
Single wall carbon nanotubes are allotropes of carbon which can be viewed as graphene sheets wrapped around themselves forming a cylindrical structure. Due to their extraordinary electrical properties and their metallic/semiconducting behavior, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been widely applied in electronic circuits and devices. However, many authors have confirmed that these electronic properties are not the identical for every single walled carbon nanotube; conversely, they are...
The kiwi (Apteryx) is a flightless bird endemic to New Zealand. Widely known as the elusive national symbol of New Zealand, the kiwi is an endangered species occupying areas of both the north and south islands of this South Pacific nation. Comparable to the size of a domestic chicken, this unique species belongs to an ancient group of birds called the ratites, commonly known for their lack of ability to fly. The flightless nature of the kiwi is especially notable since scientists have been...
ABSTRACT AIMS: The focal adhesion molecule paxillin localizes to cell adhesion sites where it mediates interactions between the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. We previously demonstrated that paxillin was overexpressed in human lung cancer and identified somatic paxillin mutations in 9% of lung cancer. A murine in vivo xenograft model of the most common paxillin mutation (A127T) showed increased cell proliferation and invasive tumor growth establishing an important role for...
Deepak Fertilizers and Petrochemicals Corpn. Ltd. (DFPCL) is one of the largest producers of industrial chemicals, Sulphur Bentonite & Nitro Phosphates in India.. DFPCL is only manufacturer of Iso Propyl Alcohol in India. It is the largest manufacturer of Technical Prilled Ammonium Nitrate in India. DFPCL's manufacturing plant is located at Taloja, Raigad. It is accredited with the prestigious ISO 9001:2000 and OHSAS 18001:2007. The total sale for agri - business stood at Rs. 576.8 crores...
Ethylene (C2H4) is a gaseous hormone produced from bacteria, fungi and all parts of higher plants such as shoots, flowers, seeds, leaves, roots, and fruits (Pech et al., 2003, p. 247). Ethylene is a two carbon symmetrical compound with one double bond (CH2=CH2). Its molecular weight is 28.05, with freezing, melting, and boiling temperatures of -180°C, -169.5°C and -103.7°C respectively. It is a flammable and colourless gaseous compound (Arshad & Frankenberger, 2002, pp. 1-9)....