HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT UTILIZATION IN AN ORGANIZATION

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Human Resources Management function is a group of activities, the main function is to deciding what staffing needs and manager have to decide whether to use contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also contain managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Mostly small businesses have to carry out these activities themselves because they can not yet manage to pay for part or fulltime help. But, they should always ensure that employees have and are aware of personnel policies which obey the rules to current regulations. These policies are over and over again in the form of employee manuals, which all workforces have.

The phrase "talent management" is being used to refer the activities to attract, develop and retain employees. Some people and organizations use the phrase to refer

especially to talented and or high-potential employees. The phrase often is used interchangeably with the field of Human Resource Management -- although as the field of talent management matures, it's very likely there will be an increasing number of people who will strongly disagree about the interchange of these fields. For now, this Library uses the phrases interchangeably. [] 

Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contributes to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms "human resource management" and "human resources" (HR) have largely replaced the term "personnel management" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple sense, HRM means employing people, developing their capacities, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement. [] 

CHAPTER 1Definition of management and organization

Management: It is the process in all business and human organization activity is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired objectives and goals. Management consists of planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization or effort for the purpose of accomplishing objectives. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.

Management can also be defined as manpower action, involving design, to assist the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the possibility to 'manage' oneself, a pre-condition to attempting to manage others.

It is the art of getting things done through employees. One can also think of management functionally, as the activity of measuring a capacity on a regular basis and of adjusting some introductory scheme or as the actions taken to reach one's proposed objective. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place, from this point of view.

The management to consist of five functions:

Planning: It is the process in organizations and public policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a plan and the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal. Panning predicts what the future should look like.

Organizing: It is commonly considered organized when it looks like everything has a correct order or placement, but in organization it is consider as group of function or activities organizes in a correct manner (mean in proper series of action) so that work should be done in proper time and proper way.

Leading: It is the process through which organization manager lead the subordinates and getting things done in a proper way , so that organization achieve the goals and solve the problems of the organization and lead them to getting thing done in on time and proper way to achieve the target of the organization.

Coordinating: It is the process through which organization making the coordination between different levels of employees and getting things done, work together for a goal achievement.

Controlling: It consists of verify whether the whole thing occurs in conformities with the strategy adopted, directions issued and ethics established. It ensures that there is successful and resourceful utilization of organizational resources so as to accomplish the planned goals. It measures the movement away of actual performance from the standard performance, discovers the causes of such deviations and helps in taking corrective actions.

The two necessary processes concerned in all these five management functions are Decision Making and Communicating:

Decision Making is a technique chooses two or more alternatives, for the duration of planning for case, manager decides stuck between the alternative ways of accomplishing goals. Within organizing he evaluates different group jobs in addition to patterns authorities' duty staffing; motivating and controlling in addition require with the intention of decision be prepared.

Communicating is not potential to carry out the managerial functions lacking communication which is the procedure of exchanging the information, ideas as well as opinions in addition to emotions among two or more persons, the managers have to obtain a large amount needed information to be plan effectively. The plan has to be communicated if they are to put in the action. Appropriate organizing, staffing, motivating in addition to controlling can not be accomplished without communication. It have to be emphasized the majority problems in the management are caused through break down in communication.

Organization: It is a group of people purposely organized to accomplish an on the whole, common objective or set of goals. Business organizations can variety in size from one person to tens of thousands. Organization in general is considering a common goal or action with the purpose of may be useful for the group of people and also organizations are the article in the direction of analysis for a number of disciplines. Frequently organization is in simplest form and does not essentially a legal entity. In the organization some type of circumstance is also exist to achieve the goal.

Organizations are a social group of people systematically place and managed to get together require or in the direction of pursue group objectives on an ongoing basis. All organizations contain a management organization with the intention of determines dealings among functions in addition to positions, and subdivides in addition to delegate's role, on a daily basis jobs, and authority to hold out defined odd jobs. Organizations are unlocking systems in with the purpose of they have an effect on and are affected by the circumstances beyond their limitations. It helps to imagine of organizations as systems. Basically put, an organization is an organized collection of parts that are highly integrated in organize to achieve an overall objective. The arrangement has a diversity of inputs which are processed to create certain outputs that together, achieve the overall goal desired by the organization. There is continuing feedback between these various parts to make sure they remain associated to accomplish the taken as a whole objective of the organization. There are a number of classes of systems, range from very straightforward frameworks all the way to social systems, which are the most comprehensive. Organizations are, of route, social systems.

Systems have inputs, processes, outputs as well as outcomes. In the direction of make clear, inputs to the organization consist of material goods such as raw materials, wealth, technologies and people. These inputs go from side to side a practice where they are united, moved along in addition to cautiously coordinated, eventually to accomplish the goals set for the organization. Outputs are tangible results formed by processes in the arrangement, such as products or services for consumers. Another kind of effect is outcomes, or benefits for consumers such as, jobs for employees, improved quality of life for customers, etc. Systems know how to be the whole organization, or its departments, groups, processes, etc.

Every organization has a number of subsystems, as well. Each subsystem has its own limitations of sorts, in addition to includes a range of inputs, processes, outputs as well as outcomes geared to achieve a taken as an entire goal for the subsystem. Common examples of subsystems are departments, programs, projects, teams, processes to produce products or services, etc. Organizations are organized up of public who are also systems of systems of systems and on it goes. Subsystems are planned in a steps needed to attain the overall goal of the in common arrangement.

The organizational structure is defined by, task, goals and strategies, policies and procedures, operating manuals, etc. The organization is depicted by its organizational charts, occupation descriptions, promotion materials, etc. The organizational system is also maintained or prohibited by policies and procedures, budgets, in order supervision systems, quality management systems, performance evaluation systems, etc. [] 

1.2   Managerial functions, skills and roles:

Managerial Functions

The managerial functions which clarify managerial work, following put together make up the management process. This process is analyzed interested in explanation functions of management like, planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Planning, organizing and controlling which transaction mostly through means of non-human aspects are known as mechanics of management, while staffing as well as direction which is mostly concerned by means of human being aspects includes dynamics of management. In the conceptual method, while the functions are listed out in a sequence, in practice they are interlocked as an organization. As all functions are not uniformly important for all managers, time spent by means of them for each of these functions varies according to their levels in the organization.

The functions are explained as under:

Planning: It is a process to look forward to the opportunity, problems as well as conditions and choosing from in the center of the substitute future courses of action. The planning practice usually includes these activities. Forecasting is looking in front to expect the opportunity, problems and conditions in an expectations period of time. Scheduling is deciding on time sequence for program steps. Budgeting is allocation of resources to minimize costs. Establishing procedures means developing and applying standardized methods of performing a specific work. Developing policies involve establishment and interpretation of standing decisions that apply to repetitive questions and problems of significance to be organization as a whole. Organizing function: The organizing function of management is the process of defining and grouping of activities and creating authority relationship among them. It consists of developing the organization structure which involves identification of task and grouping them into units or departments for performance. Delegating authority to the managers and making him responsible for group performance. Establishing, relations, creating conditions are necessary for mutually cooperative efforts of people in the organization. [] 

Staffing: The Planning as well as the organization all the way through suitable personnel comprise the staffing function. Staffing consists of recruiting, training, in addition in the direction of developing people who can give to the organized effort. Staffing involves filling along by keeping filled, the positions in the organization structure. It involves selection, training and development, compensation, along with evaluation of subordinates by the manager. Manpower planning in addition to manpower management looks after this performance along by means of tries to ensure appropriate methods of salary as well as performance assessment of the staff.

Directing function involves managing group of people along with the work all the way through the means of motivation, proper leadership and effective communication in addition to coordination. The managers have to develop capability to command. Manager should issue guidelines along with instructions without disturbing any resentment among the subordinates. He has to be able to secure willing obedience from his subordinates without rejecting their proposal in addition to creativity. In addition, he requires a sound communication system to enable exchange of ideas along with information for common understanding with their employees.

Controlling involves ensuring that performance does not deviate from standards. Controlling consists of three steps, which include establishing performance standards, comparing actual performance against standards, and taking corrective action when necessary. Performance standards are often stated in monetary terms such as revenue, costs, or profits, but may also be stated in other terms, such as units produced, number of defective products, or levels of customer service. [] 

Controlling Function enables management to make sure with the intention of accomplishment is in accordance through the established strategy it involves establishing the performance standards for evaluating results. Performance is on the basis of records along with reports on the improvement of work. Performance assessment against the standards set. Counteractive action to normalize operations, remove deficiencies in addition to improve performance of the organization.

Managerial skill

Managerial skills are the group of activities such as technical, human as well as conceptual. The manager managing every activity of the organization but the real job concerned in the activity is technical skill .Technical skills comprise knowledge of as well as skill in a certain specific field, such as computers, financial along with managerial accounting, and manufacturing. These skills are more important at lower levels of management in view of the fact that these managers are dealing directly by way of employee's responsibility the organization's work. It is capability to communicate among other persons in the organizations as well as the capability to recognize their desires with influence them in the direction of ones point of view are human skills. Managers with good human skills are able to obtain the best productivity of their people. Manager should know how to communicate, motivate, lead, as well as inspire enthusiasm in addition to trust. Human skills are equally important at all levels of management. Conceptual skills are those managers must have to think in addition to conceptualize concerning abstract along with complex situations. By means of these skills managers have to be capable to see the organization as a whole, be aware of the relationship between various subunits, in addition to visualize how the organization fits into its broader situation. Conceptual skills are most important at top level management. Conceptual skills understand of how customers of the organization act in response as a group to a variety of activities. Similarly managers have to understand how suppliers in the direction of his department respond as a group and moreover economic consequences, political consequences, in addition to social consequences approach into play moreover a manager have to be capable to visualize all these expected outcomes in approaching out through his goals, strategies along with tactics.

Strategic planning Skill: It determines wherever an organization is going in excess of the next year or more, how it's going to get there and how it'll know if it got there or not. The focus of a strategic plan is usually on the entire organization, while the focus of a business plan is usually on a particular product, service or program.

There are a variety of perspectives, models and approaches used in strategic planning. The way that a strategic plan is developed depends on the nature of the organization's leadership, culture of the organization, complexity of the organization's environment, size of the organization, expertise of planners, etc. For example, there are a variety of strategic planning models, including goals-based, issues-based, organic, scenario (some would assert that scenario planning is more of a technique than model), etc.

Improving Productivity Skill

Disciplining Skill

Resolving conflict Skill

Communication Skills capability in the direction of transform ideas into words as well as actions, credibility among colleagues, peers, and subordinates, listening and asking questions, presentation skills and spoken format, presentation skills; written and graphic formats

Effectiveness Skills: Contributing to corporate mission/departmental objectives, customer focus, multitasking; working at multiple tasks at parallel, negotiating skills, project management, reviewing operations and implementing improvements, setting and maintaining performance standards internally and externally, setting priorities for attention and activity, time management.

Interpersonal Skills: Coaching and mentoring, diversity ; working with diverse people and culture, networking within the organization, networking outside the organization, working in teams; cooperation and commitment.

In today's demanding and dynamic workplace, employees who are invaluable to an organization must be willing to constantly upgrade their skills and take on extra work outside their own specific job areas. There is no doubt that skills will continue to be an important way of describing what a manager does.

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Managerial roles

Managers must wear many different hats in formulating and implementing task activities related to their positions. In an attempt to understand the diversity of hats managers must wear, Henry Mintzberg examined managerial activities on a daily basis. His study enabled him to identify ten different but, coordinated sets of behavior, or roles, that manager assume. These ten roles can be separated into three general groupings: interpersonal roles, informational roles, and decisional roles.

INTERPERSONAL ROLES

Three of the manager's roles come into play when the manager must engage in interpersonal relationships. The three roles of figurehead, leader, and liaison are each necessary under differing circumstances. Adopting one or another of the three interpersonal roles is made easier by the formal authority the manager obtains from the organization.

The figurehead role is enacted when activity of a ceremonial nature is required within the organization. A baseball manager attending a minor league all-star game, the head chef of a prominent restaurant greeting customers at the door, and the president of a bank congratulating a new group of trainees are all examples of the figurehead role. While the figurehead role is routine, with little serious communication and no important decision making, its importance should not be overlooked. At the interpersonal level, it provides members and non-members alike with a sense of what the organization is about and the type of people the organization recruits.

The second interpersonal role, the leader role, involves the coordination and control of the work of the manager's subordinates. The leader role may be exercised in a direct or an indirect manner. Hiring, training, and motivating may all require direct contact with subordinates. However, establishing expectations regarding work quality, decision-making responsibility, or time commitments to the job are all outcomes of the leader role that are indirectly related to subordinates.

Quite often, managers are required to obtain information or resources outside their authority. The liaison role is enacted when managers make contact with other individuals, who may or may not reside in the organization, in order to complete the work performed by their departments or work units. An auto assembly plant supervisor may telephone a tire supplier to determine the amount of inventory available for next week; a prosecuting attorney may meet with the presiding judge and defense attorney to discuss the use of motions and evidence in a libel trial; or a college professor may meet with professors in a separate department on campus to obtain information on a prospective doctoral student. Ultimately, the liaison role enables a manager to develop a network for obtaining external information which can be useful for completing current and future work activities.

INFORMATIONAL ROLES

Monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson are the three informational roles that a manager may assume. These informational roles are created as a result of enacting the set of interpersonal roles already described. A network of interpersonal contacts with both subordinates and individuals outside the work unit serves to establish the manager as an informational nerve center of the unit, responsible for gathering, receiving, and transmitting information that concerns members of the work unit.

A manager assumes the monitor role by continually scanning the environment for information or activities and events that may identify opportunities or threats to the functioning of the work unit. Much of the manager's gathering of information is achieved through the network of contacts that has been established through the interpersonal roles. Hearing small talk at a banquet about a competitor's planned marketing program, learning through casual conversation at a ball game about the negative medical evaluation of an unsigned ball player, or daily reading of a business periodical are all examples of the kinds of information gathering involved in the monitor role.

The information a manager gathers as a monitor must be evaluated and transmitted as appropriate to members of the organization. The transmittal of information by a manager activates the disseminator role. Privileged information may be disseminated to subordinates, peers, or superiors in the organization. The manager may inform the marketing vice-president about the specific marketing strategy a competitor is planning to implement. A baseball manager may inform the team owner that an impending trade should be canceled because of the unfavorable medical report on one of the players. Or reading The Wall Street Journal may inform the manager that a shipping strike is looming and thus enable her to inform subordinates that temporary layoffs may occur next month.

Occasionally, a manager must assume the spokesperson role by speaking on behalf of the work unit to people inside or outside the organization. This might involve lobbying for critical resources or appealing to individuals who have influence on activities that affect the work unit. A top manager asking the board of directors to keep the work unit together during a reorganization period or a corporate president speaking to a college audience on the role the company plays in education would both constitute engaging in the spokesperson role.

DECISIONAL ROLES

Both interpersonal and informational roles are really preludes to what are often considered to be a manager's most important set of roles: the decisional roles of entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.

The entrepreneur role comes into action when the manager seeks to improve the work unit. This can be accomplished by adapting new techniques to fit a particular situation or modifying old techniques to improve individual or group activity. Managers usually learn of new or innovative methods through information gathered in the monitor role. As a result, a supervisor purchases a new kiln which will shorten the drying process for ceramic tiles; a director of a youth club trains staff in the use of personal computers to increase file access; or a president establishes a new pension plan to improve employee morale.

Whereas the entrepreneur role establishes the manager as the initiator of change, the disturbance handler role establishes the manager as a responder to change. Organizations, unfortunately, do not run so smoothly that managers are never called upon to respond to unwelcome pressures. In these cases, the manager is required to act quickly to bring stability back to the organization. A law partner must settle a disagreement among associates in the firm on who will present a case before a judge; a personnel director must negotiate with striking employees dissatisfied with the procedures for laying off employees; or a cannery first-line manager must respond to a sudden shortage of cans used to package perishable fruit because the supplier has reneged on a contract.

When a manager is placed in the position of having to decide to whom and in what quantity resources will be dispensed, the resource allocator role is assumed. Resources may include money, time, power, equipment, or people. During periods of resource abundance, this role can be easily performed by a manager. In most cases, however, organizations operate under conditions of resource scarcity; thus, decisions on the allocation of resources can be critical for the success of the work unit, division, or organization. As a decision maker, the manager must strive not only to appropriately match resources with subordinates but also to ensure that the distribution of resources is coordinated to effectively complete the task to be performed. An office manager must provide secretaries with appropriate equipment to generate and duplicate documents. A manager of a fast-food restaurant must coordinate work shifts to have the maximum number of employees working during the lunch hour. Corporate presidents may provide their administrative assistants with decision-making responsibility for day-to-day matters.

In addition to decisions concerning organizational changes, disturbances, and resources, the manager must enact a negotiator role. The process of negotiation is possible only when an individual has the authority to commit organizational resources. Hence, as managers move up the managerial hierarchy and obtain control over more resources, they become more involved in the negotiator role. For example, the president of a record company may be called in to discuss terms of a possible contract with a major rock group; a production manager must negotiate with the personnel department to obtain employees with specialized skills; or a college dean must negotiate with department heads over course offerings and the number of faculty to be hired.

The relative emphasis a manager places on these ten roles is highly dependent on the manager's authority and status in the organization. Length of time on the job, position in the management hierarchy, goals of the subunit to be achieved, and skills the manager possesses all play a part in determining which roles are more prominent than others at any given time. For instance, a marketing manager is more likely to emphasize the interpersonal roles because of the importance of personal contact in the marketing process. A financial manager, charged with responsibility for the economic efficiency of the organization, will probably focus on the decisional roles. A staff manager, or a manager who performs in an advisory capacity, is likely to be more heavily involved in the informational roles. Regardless of the differences that may occur, however, all managers enact interpersonal, informational, and decisional roles while performing their tasks.

Effectively managing an organization is a demanding task. Managers not only must develop skills related to the functional areas of management but also must learn how to integrate these activities. What makes this process demanding is that events and activities external and internal to an organization can radically change the techniques and methods managers must use in order to arrive at successful outcomes. Managers cannot afford to be limited in their view of management, nor can they simply rely on how things were done in the past.

Even the most seasoned and successful managers are prone to mistakes. However, a more complete knowledge of the managerial process can reduce the chances of mistakes that will have dire consequences for an organization. Such knowledge may help managers to better plan, organize and staff, direct, and control organization activities within the context of their organization.

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1.3 Interpretation of human resource management activities

Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.

Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation,

Efficient and effective Human Resource management is a challenge to all HR professionals. Staffing, training and helping to manage people so that the organization is likely to increase the performance level is imperative to work in a productive communication, administration, and training. manner. Normally, human resource functions are tracking data points on each employee. These might include experiences, capabilities, skills, data, personal histories and payroll records. In the most general sense businesses carry out different activities dealing with managing their approaches to employee benefits and compensation, as well as employee records and personnel policies.

Among the core HR activities there are payroll, time and labor management, benefit administration and HR management. These activities correlate with the HR objectives which are largely the responsibility of Human Resources.

The foremost objectives of Personnel services are an efficient and effective personnel and payroll system responsive to staff needs together with the flexible remuneration system. These objectives can be attained by implementation of different modules, such as budgets and commencements module, applicant tracking module, occupational health and safety module, etc.

None the less important HR objective is the industrial relations services implying establishing effective relationships between the employer and the staff. Complete and comprehensive policy framework should be established for risk management, safety and health issues. Staff should be well informed about safety and health issues in the workplace. What is required to gain this objective is the staff's participation in a wide range of training and awareness programs in the area of safety and health. Staff development objective can be realized through different skills development courses designed to encourage further skills development necessary to carry out their responsibilities.

Some organizations consider equity and diversity services as their objective and provide information about the procedures for sexual harassment, racial harassment and equity grievances, thus making the staff well aware of the policies. The initiatives include awareness programs in relation to equity and diversity. In the long run it leads to an increase in the number of staffs who have attended the training sessions and know the issues.

Human Resource services provision is closely connected with strategic policies, planning and coordination of an organization. A wide range of human resource strategies aimed at more flexible planning can include improved links between performance and remuneration, improved performance measurement procedures for all staff, improved recruitment and retention strategies, and encouragement of skills development. One more objective result in consultancy support provided on the basis of improved information about both the employer and HR staff needs and working requirements.

HR objectives stimulate the development of people to be their best in order to meet the needs of an organization. A successful performance management system including department, team and individual business objectives, personal development plans, performance appraisal, career planning, etc., aims at enhancing the personnel's commitment to developing the business long-term and can give challenges which will enhance the staff personal growth. Moreover, if an organization can assess the workforce changes needed by business, implement the necessary optimization and measure the results using up-to-date technology systems, it will get data having a critical role in monitoring and controlling overall performance.

The changes in human resource management also require human resource professionals to scrutinize carefully their own value to the firm. They must adopt a new paradigm that requires identifying the cost of specific actions and/or decisions, relating these costs to specific outcomes, and deciding whether or not the cost is worth the outcome(s). The requirement for bringing value to the firm applies to human resource professionals as well as to all other people. In some cases the results of this analysis may lead to a decision to eliminate specific human resource functions and/or staff.

Human resources can be a unique source of sustained competitive advantage. This is especially true when its parts have high internal and external fit (Baird & Meshoulam, 1988; Lengnick-Hall & Lengnick-Hall, 1988).

By Mitchell, Margaret E., Publication: American International College Journal of Business , Date: Wednesday, March 22 2000 Page 3

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