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Introduction To Human Resource Department Management

Essay add: 27-11-2017, 20:18   /   Views: 18

One of the fastest growing sectors of the economy of our time is the hotel industry. The hotel industry alone is a multi-billion dollar and growing enterprise. It is exciting, never boring and offer unlimited opportunities. The hotel industry is diverse enough for people to work in different areas of interest and still be employed within the hotel industry. This trend is not just in India, but also globally.

Modern hotels provide refined services to their guests. The customers or guests are always right. This principle necessitated application of management principles in the hotel industry and the hotel professionals realized the instrumentality of marketing principles in managing the hotel industry.

The concept of total quality management is found getting an important place in the marketing management of hotels. The emerging positive trend in the tourism industry indicates that hotel industry is like a reservoir from where the foreign exchange flows. This naturally draws our attention on HOTEL MANAGEMENT. Like other industries, the hotel industry also needs to explore avenues for innovation, so that a fair blending of core and peripheral services is made possible. It is not to be forgotten that the leading hotel companies of the world have been intensifying research to enrich their peripheral services with the motto of adding additional attractions to their service mix. It is against this background that we find the service mix more flexible in nature.

The recruitment and training programmes are required to be developed in the face of technological sophistication. The leading hotel companies have been found promoting an ongoing training programme so that the personnel come to know about the use of sophisticated communication technologies.

INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT OF HOTEL INDUSTRY

In hotel industry the job of HR manager can be compare with the job of conductor, whose job is to instruct and direct all of the various musicians so that they can perform well together. But before a conductor can direct a beautiful performance, all of the individual musicians must be able to play their instruments well. What kind of performance could one can expect if the violinists did not know how to play their instruments or the flutists could not read music?

So it is in the hospitality industry, before a manager can direct and shape employee's individual contributions into an efficient whole, he or she must first turn employees into competent workers who know how to do their jobs. Employees are the musicians of the orchestra that the members of the audience-the-guests-have come to watch performance. If employees are not skilled at their jobs, then the performance they give will get bad reviews. Just as an orchestra can have a fine musical score from a great composer and still perform poorly because of incompetent musicians, so a hotel can have a finest standard recipes, service procedures and quality standards and still have dissatisfied guests because of poor employee performance.

That is why properly managing human resources is so important. No other industry provides so much contact between employees and customers and so many opportunities to either reinforce a positive experience or create a negative one.

As in the five-star hotel and five-star deluxe hotel there are around lots of employee are involved in different jobs in different fields there is dire need to look and control on them. No doubt different department's heads are present to look their department employee, but HRD is a place, which supervise and effectively communicate with these departments head and communicate with the top management. Thus there function is very large and diverse as compared with respect to different department's heads

Personnel Policies of HR

The personnel function in a hotel includes many activities such as:

Consideration of leadership style

Relationship

Responsibilities

Philosophy

Social orientation

Organizational structure

In most of the hotels the personnel policies are put in writing. These policies are distributed to key and responsible executive to provide guidance and ensure consistent application. Periodically the HRD review these policies.

For Example: In Ramada international the following policies are put on the notice board as well as each employee bear a tag starting "I am" which generate a sense of motivation as well as sense of personal feeling towards the organization.

Fig: Policies of Ramada InternationalI am proudI am ExcitedI am EmpoweredI am Ramada InternationalHUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING

Human Resource Planning (HRP) is the first aspect of human resource process. It is very commonly understood as the process of forecasting an organization's future demand for, and of, the right type of people in the right number. It is only after this that HRM department can initiate a recruitment and selection process. HRP is the sub-system in the total organizational planning.

HRP is important for:

The future personnel needs

To cope up with change

To create highly talented personnel

For the protection of weaker sections

For the international expansion strategy of the company

It is the foundation for personnel functions

The list is infact never ending. HRP actually has become an inevitable part of HRM process.

HRP is influenced by several considerations. The more important of them are:

Type and strategy of the organization

Organizational growth cycles and planning

Environmental uncertainties

Type and quality of forecasting information

Nature of jobs being filled

Off-loading the work

Organizational Objectives & Policies

HR plans need to be based on organizational objectives. In practice, this implies that the objectives of the HR plan must be derived from organizational objectives. Specific requirements in terms of number and characteristics of employees should be derived from the organizational objectives.

HR Demand Forecast

Demand forecasting must consider several factors - both external as well as internal. Among the external factors are competition, economic climate, laws and regulatory bodies, changes in technology and social factors. Internal factors include budget constraints, production levels, new products and services, organizational structure and employee separations.

HR Supply Forecast

The next logical step for the management is to determine whether it will be able to procure the required number of personnel and the sources for such procurement. This information is provided by supply forecasting. Supply forecasting measures the number of people likely to be available from within and outside an organization, after making allowance for absenteeism, internal movements and promotions, wastage and changes in hours and other conditions of work.

HR Programming

Once an organization's personnel demand and supply are forecast, the two must be reconciled or balanced in order that vacancies can be filled by the right employees at the right time. HR programming is the third step in the planning process, therefore, assumes greater importance.

HR Plan Implementation

Implementation requires converting an HR plan into action. A series of action programmes are initiated as a part of HR plan implementation. Some such programmes are recruitment, selection and placement; training and development; retraining and redeployment; the retention plan; the redundancy plan; and the succession plan.

Control and Evaluation

Control and evaluation represents the fifth and the final phase in the HRP process. The HR plan should include budgets, targets and standards. It should also clarify responsibilities for implementation and control, and establish reporting procedures which will enable achievements to be monitored against the plan. These may simply report on the numbers employed against establishment and on the numbers recruited against the recruitment targets. But they should also report employment costs against the budget, and trends in wastage and employment ratios.

Role of Human Resource Department

The human resource department plays a major role in helping plan the system and in developing job description, job specification and performance standards. Specialists in that department may be assigned to conduct job analysis and write job descriptions in cooperation with managers, supervisors and employees. The human resource department is not involved in the actual writing of performance standards but play a diagnostic, training and monitoring role.

JOB ANALYSIS

In order to achieve effective HRP, the duties involved and the skills required for performing all the jobs in an organization have to be taken care of. This knowledge is gained through job analysis. In simple words, job analysis may be understood as a process of collecting information about the job. Specifically, job analysis involves the following steps:

Collecting and recording job information.

Checking the job information for accuracy.

Writing job description based on the information.

Using the information to determine the skills, abilities and knowledge that are required on the job.

Updating the information from time to time.

Strategic Choices

Employee Involvement: Job analysis involves collecting job-related information - duties, responsibilities, skills and knowledge required to perform the jobs. It may be stated that in job analysis, information about a job is collected and not about the incumbent, however, the jobholder is consulted. Employees are often asked to supply vital information about the contents of job, given their familiarity with it.

The Levels of Details: The level of analysis may vary from detailed, as in time and motion studies, to broad as in analyzing jobs based on general duties. The level of analysis affects the nature of the data collected.

When and How Often: Another strategic choice relates to the timing and frequency of conducting job analysis. Job analysis is generally conducted when i) an organization is newly established and the job analysis is initiated for the first time; ii) a new job is created in an established company; iii) a job is changed significantly due to change in technology, methods, procedures or systems; iv) the organization is contemplating a new remuneration plan; or v) the employees or managers feel that there exist certain inequities between job demands and the remuneration it carries.

Past-Oriented versus Future Oriented: If an organization is changing rapidly due to fast growth or technological change, a more future-oriented approach to job analysis may be desired.

Source of Job data: Although the most direct source of information about a job is a jobholder, a number of other human and non-human sources are available.

Information Gathering

This step involves decision on three issues, viz;

What type of data is to be collected?What methods are to be employed for data collection?Who should collect the data?

For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited, the sources for collecting information are by Observation, Interviews and Questionnaire.

Information Processing

Once the job information has been collected, it needs to be processed, so that it would be useful in various personnel functions. Specifically, job-related data would be useful to prepare job description and job specification

JOB DESIGN

Job design is a process of determining the specific tasks and responsibilities to be carried out by each member of the organization. In simple words, the logical sequence to job analysis is job design. Job analysis provides job-related data as well as the skills and knowledge expected of the incumbent to discharge the job. Job analysis, then, involves conscious efforts to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives.

Factors Affecting Job Design

Job design is affected by organizational, environmental, behavioral factors. A properly designed job will make it productive and satisfying. If a job fails on this count, the fault lies with the job designers who, based on the feedback, must redesign the job.

Techniques of Job Design

Work Simplification: In this technique, the job simplified or specialized. A given job is broken down into small sub-parts and each part is assigned to one individual.

Job Rotation: Job rotation implies movement of employees from job to job. Jobs remain unchanged, but incumbents shift. With job rotation, a given employee performs different jobs, but more or less, jobs of the same nature.

Job Enlargement: Job enlargement involves expanding the number of tasks or duties assigned to a given job. Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification. Adding more tasks or duties to a job does not mean that new skills and abilities are needed to perform it.

Job Enrichment: Job enrichment seeks to improve both task efficiency and human satisfaction by building into people's jobs, quite specifically, greater scope for personal achievement and recognition, more challenging and responsible work, and more opportunity for individual advancement and growth.

Autonomous or Self-directed Teams: A self-directed work team is an intact group of employees who are responsible for a whole work process or segment that delivers a products or service o an internal or external customer.

High-Performance Work Design: It is a means of improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set.

RECRUITMENT

In simple terms, recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs, from among whom the right people can be selected. Recruitment is the process of finding qualified people and encouraging them to apply for work with the firm.

Managerial Roles

Responsibility for the overall recruitment process is assigned to human resources managers. They are responsible for designing and implementing a recruitment program that will meet the hotel industry's personnel needs while complying with all legal requirements. This responsibility includes finding sources of applicants; writing and placing advertisements; contacting schools; agencies and labour unions; establishing procedures to guarantee equal employment opportunity; and administering the funds the firm has budgeted for recruitment.

For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited the recruitment is done by Advertisement, Recruitment Agencies, on net (Naukri.com). And only in some hotels it is done by the way of College Campus, Placement Service.

Factors Governing Recruitment

The given fig. represents the factors that normally affect the recruitment process. These factors add additional function to that of HR manager.

External Forces

Supply & Demand

Unemployment rate

Labour Market

Political-social

Sons of soil

Image

Internal Forces

Recruitment Policy

HRP

Size of the firm

Cost

Growth & Expansion

RecruitmentFig: Factors influencing recruitmentTypes of Recruitment

In hotel industry, the types of recruitment are:

Internal Recruitment

Internal recruitment seeks applicants for positions from those who are currently employed. Internal sources include present employees, employee's referrals, former employees, and former applicants.

External Recruitment

Finding qualified applicants from outside the organization is the most difficult part of recruitment. The success of an expanding hotel industry or one with many positions demanding specialized skills often depends on the effectiveness of the organizations recruitment program. Specifically, sources external to an organization are professional or trade associations, advertisements, employment exchanges, college/university/institute placement services, consultants, displaced persons, radio and television, acquisitions and mergers and competitors.

Recruitment Process

HR practices its function in each and every stages of recruitment. The process comprises five interrelated stages, viz. (i) Planning, (ii) Strategy development, (iii) Searching, (iv) Screening, and (v) Evaluation and control.

The function of HR is to make the selection procedure an ideal one. The ideal recruitment programmed is the one that attracts a relatively larger number of qualified applicants who will survive the screening process and accept positions with the organization, when offered.

SELECTION

Selection is a process of picking individuals (out of the pool of job applicants) with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. Different hotels apply different methods and procedure for recruitment as well as selection. It basically depends on the management policies and the size of operation.

Selection Process

Selection is a long process, commencing from the preliminary interview of the applicants and ending with the contract of employment. Fig. shows the generalized selection process. In practice, the process differs among organizations and between two different jobs within the same organization. Selection procedure for senior managers will be long-drawn and rigorous, but it is simple and short while hiring shop-floor workers.

For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited the selection procedure is different for people in different department as well as for different post. In Orchid Hotel, the different types of test taken are knowledge test, trade test, interviews and managerial grid for executives.

Selection Process for Managerial Department in Orchid

Pre-placement Presentation

Group Discussion

Extemporization

Written Aptitude Test

Preliminary Interview

Psychometric Test for short listed candidates

Final Interview with senior management

Letter of Offer

Selection Process for House Keeping Department in Sea Princess

Pre-placement Presentation

Group Discussion

Eye for detail test

Preliminary Interview

Letter of Offer

Final Interview with senior management

Selection Process for Chef in Ramada Plaza

Pre-placement Presentation

Written Technical Test

Group Discussion

Personal Interview

Food Trial

Letter of Offer

ORIENTATION AND PLACEMENTOrientation

Orientation is called as induction. It is the planned process of introducing new employees to their jobs, their co-workers and the organization. The main purpose of induction is to relieve the new employee from possible anxiety and make him or her feel at home on the job.

These orientation programmes are carried out formally as well as individually/collectively in the hotels. These programmes are carried from 1 weak - 2 weak.

For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited the time spared on orientation programme is one week. In Orchid Hotel, the problem faced during orientation programme is of adjusting schedules.

The topics, which are covered in the induction programmes are given in the following table:

Organizational IssuesHistory of employerProduct line or services providedOrganization of employerOverview of production processNames & titles of key executivesCompany policies & rulesEmployee's title & departmentDisciplinary regulationsLayout of physical facilitiesEmployee handbookProbationary periodSafety procedure & enforcementEmployee BenefitsPay scales and pay daysInsurance benefitsVacations and holidaysRetirement programmeRest breaksEmployer-provided services to employeesTraining & education benefitsCounselingRehabilitation programmesIntroductionTo supervisorTo co-workersTo trainersTo employee counselorJob DutiesJob locationOverview of jobJob tasksJob objectivesJob safety requirementsRelationship to other jobsPlacement

After orientation comes placement. Placement refers to the assignment of a new employee to his or her job. The jobs of HR are simple where the job is independent, but where the jobs are sequential or pooled, HR specialists use assessment classification model for placing newly hired employees. For example the job of placing a waiter to its position is quite simpler as compared with that of the placing the employee at managerial level. The job of placing a waiter to its position is called an independent job but the job of placing employee at managerial level can be considered as sequential or pooled job.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Training and development activities are designed in order to impart specific skills, abilities and knowledge to employees.

Effective training is basic ingredient of success in the hotel industry. The concept of training is endorsed my most managers in the hotel industry, yet managers often give little thought to the training function in the context of their own business or departmental responsibilities until something goes wrong! One of the main problems in hotel industry is that investment in training and development of employees is a reactive process for many companies. Frequently, training and development arises as the result of significant change in the operational environment or as a consequent of crisis such as staff turnover or major departmental problems. Training is then used to cope with the immediate difficulty. This process may be proved costly to hotel. Whereas development refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow and evolve a vision about the future.

Here the job of HR is to identify the training need and then accordingly to design the suitable programme for that. Training within a hotel provides the best opportunity to influence the attitude and performance of employees. The training programmes include is such as introduction, fire, food hygiene, control of substances hazardous to health, manual handling first-aid, technical skills, product knowledge, and customer service.

For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited the training methods used are both On-the-job as well as Off-the-job.

Methods and Techniques of Training

A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. Training methods are categorized into two groups and they are:

On-the-job training (OJT)

Off-the-job training

On-the-job training: On-the-job training is primarily learning by doing and, as such, is probably the most used and most abused approach to training. Like other form of training, OJT requires planning, structure and supervision to be effective for developing a variety of practical and customer-oriented capabilities. When done correctly, OJT is a sensible and cost effective method for training and assessing trainees' progress in jobs such as retail sales, food and beverage operatives, and check-in and check-out positions. Some of the On-the-job methods of training are orientation training, job-instruction training, apprentice training, internships and assistantships, job rotation etc.

For example, at Domino's Pizza, approximately 85% of employee training is OJT, delivered by store managers using extensively by Ramada Inns, Inc., which has developed an OJT training aid. It also provides trainees with a list of sequential steps that should be followed to perform the task correctly, as well as the list of tools, materials, and equipment needed to do the task. Finally, the training aid provides an evaluation form for providing feedback to the trainees.

Off-the-job training: Off-the-job training allows for the development of broader and more conceptual skills while providing a practice environment in which error need not be so costly. There are three main forms of off-the-job training: In-house, External, and Independent.

In-house off-the-job training may take several formats including lectures and other classroom techniques, discussions, demonstrations, case studies and role plays, and simulations. What distinguishes in-house off-the-job training from other type of off-the-job training is that in-house training is conducted away from the physical location where the job is actually carried out, but still on company premises.

Like in-house off-the-job training, external off-the-job training can also take a variety of forms. Such training may be tailored to the company's specific need or it may be offered on a more general basis; it may focus on special disciplines related to hospitality.

Independent off-the-job training refers to training methods that are controlled and managed by the learner. A number of these training options which are becoming increasingly important to employees in the hotel industry are:

Distance/open learning or training (may involve correspondence teaching, use of television or radio, video-conferencing, etc.)

Computer-assisted learning

Interactive-video learning

A combination of the above method

Marriott Trains

Bill Marriott is a firm believer in the value of training front-line people, and in the impact the front-line has on the bottom-line. There are over 140000 employees in the various Marriott hotel and food service enterprises, which he describe simply as a "people business". As Marriott says:

We are in the people business, from waiters to maids to truck drivers, our employees must be able to get along pleasantly with others all day long.

He adds that, by one estimate, company employees make 6 million customer contacts per day, 6 million moments of truth.

In the Marriott Company that important customer interface isn't left to chance. In 1984 Marriott spend more than $20 million on training. To reinforce the effects of training, every employee gets the regular performance review and participates in a generous profit- sharing plan.

Extensive coverage of Training Programme at TAJ

At Taj the employees are there assests. They believe that every employee has the potential to make a successful, long-term career within the company, upholding the true values that have been the foundation for the phenomenal growth of the Taj Group. He or she is the very reason for there survival.

Taj Management Training Programme (Operations/Food Production/Housekeeping):

This intensive management training programme prepares young people as thorough professionals with the Taj Group of hotels.

Taj Hospitality Training Programme

The Taj hospitality training (THT) program has been designed to train the trainees to the level of "Supervisor" in any of their operational departments. "Learning comes by doing", based on this principle the on-the-job training is build in as very important component of entire program. Recruitment for this programme commences in all key hotels schools and graduate colleges in the country in the months of October/November.

The THT program follows a systematic process including induction, theory classes, on-the-job training, evaluation, appraisals and assessments.

Taj Management Training Programme

Each year, the Taj Group fortifies its operations functions with raw talent from the best hotel and graduate schools in the country. The group offers the Taj Management Training Programme (TMTP) management-training program comparable to an MBA in hospitality that moulds young budding hotel professionals into future business managers. A typical career path could include joining as a Taj Management Trainee and attaining the position of a general manager of a hotel by lateral movements through various functions such as Human Resource, Sales, Food & Beverage and Front Office.

An 18-month intensive management training programme that prepares for profit centre management in the Taj Group.

First 12 months, the Management trainee focuses on practical (On-the-Job training) and theoretical exposure to the fundamentals in hoteliering.

Next 6 months, the management trainee receives inputs that combine elements of management including Management Development, Architectural Appreciation, Human Resources, Materials Management and Accommodation.

6 months training as a Shadow Manager/Shadow Chef (mentorship by a senior manager/mentoring chef).

The program provides educational exposure and development commensurate with an MBA in hospitality. The management trainees are also expected to complete live projects during their training period.

Food Production

The Taj Management Training Programme - Food Production is the premier hospitality management-training programme for culinary education in the country. The TMTP-Food Production Programme focuses on culinary skills and the managerial ability to run kitchen operations. Recruitment for this programme commences in all key hotel schools in the country in the months of October/November.

It includes:

An 18-month intensive management-training programme, which prepares trainee for Profit Centre Management in the Taj Group.

6 months training as a shadow manager/shadow chef (mentorship by a senior manager/mentoring chef).

In order to sustain there position of strength in Food and Beverage, participants undergo specialization in cuisines of the world. There is a special emphasis on creating chefs with internationally acclaimed skills.

Housekeeping Executive Development Programme (HEDP)

HEDP is a one year intensive housekeeping training programme, which prepares trainee for a career in housekeeping and accommodation in the Taj Group. Recruitment for this programme commences in all key hotel schools in the country in the months of October/November.

Duing the first 6 months of the programme, the management trainees undergo technical training in classroom accompanied by on-the job exposure. Inputs include interiors, finance, human resources, architectural design, fabric and styling. The next 6 months include on-the-job training in a Taj hotel as an understudy to a mentoring executive housekeeper.

This is an exclusive "Earn while you Learn" opportunity, offering attractive stipends to programme participants.

Stipend + benefits

Subsidized accommodation during the training period.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

Performance appraisal refers to the assessment of an employee's actual performance, behaviour on jobs, and his or her potential for future performance. It is done generally for the purpose of assessing training needs to employee, to effect his promotions and to give him pay increase, retention or termination.

Though there are different methods of performance appraisal only one method that is commonly used in this industry is Rating Scale Method.

For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited the performance appraisal is done on yearly basis but in Hotel Imperial Palace on day to day basis the briefing of employee is done. In Orchid Hotel, the rating scales method is used by the way of Questionnaire (1-10).

Challenges of Performance Appraisal

Create a culture of excellence that inspires every employee to improve or lend himself or herself to be assessed.

Align organizational objectives to individual aspirations.

Clear growth paths for talented individuals.

Provide new challenges to rejuvenate careers that have reached the plateau stage.

Forge a partnership with people for managing their careers.

Empower employees to make decisions without the fear of failing.

Embed teamwork in all operational processes.

Debureaucratise the organization structure for ease of flow of information.

JOB EVALUATION

Job evaluation refers to the process of determining the relative worth of each job for purpose of establishing satisfactory wage and salary differentials. Jobs are evaluated on the basis of their content and are placed in the order of their importance. In a job evaluation programme, the jobs are ranked and not the job holders.

Methods of Job Evaluation

Job Evaluation

Non-Analytical

Analytical

Job-Grading Method

Ranking Method

Factor Comparison Method

Point-Ranking Method

Fig: Methods of Job Evaluation

Though there are different types of methods available but the most common method practiced in this industry is analytical method and in analytical method point ranking methods is the most appropriate one.

EMPLOYEE RELATIONS

As the name suggest it is all about maintaining relationship with the employee. It includes all terms that are concerned with the employee like employee remuneration, incentives payments, employee benefits and services, employee welfare, safety and health issue, trade unions etc. Here it's where the HR manager communicates with employee about their problems, suggestion and so on. All these steps are followed in order to retain best employee.

Employee Remuneration

In most of the hotels, the human resource department plays a crucial role in determining the remuneration policy of employees. For this they take into consideration all external as well as the internal factors. By this they have to deal with external factors like labour market, going rate, cost of living, labour unions, labour laws, society and the economy as well as internal factors like company's ability to pay, job evaluation and performance appraisal and the worker himself or herself. In hotel industry both financial as well as non-financial methods of remuneration are followed.

Incentives Payments

It is seen that HRD are highly involved in deciding the incentives programmes. As this department is involved in deciding the remuneration programmme, they are serving as the foundations for most incentive plans. The management of these plans is collaborative. These incentives schemes are for direct workers who work in batches, as well as for indirect workers.

Employee Benefits and Services

The HRD has a major role in the development and management of benefits programs. These benefits are designed by HRD in order to suit the requirement of employee. And further, they are sent to the top management for approval. Thereafter they are implemented. These benefits, which are given to the employee, are both financial as well as non-financial.

Some of the benefits and services, which are practiced in the hotel industry are as follows:

Legally required payments

Old age, survivors, disability and health insurance

Worker's compensation

Unemployment compensation

Contingent and deferred benefits

Pension plans

Group life insurance

Sick leave

Maternity leave

Payments for time not worked

Vacations

Holidays

Voting pay allowances

Employee Welfare

Labour welfare refers to taking care of the well being of workers by employers, trade unions, and government and non-government agencies. Recognizing the unique place of the worker in the society and doing good for him/her retaining and motivating employees, minimizing social evils, and building up the local reputation of the hotel are the arguments in favour of employee welfare. Hence this area has generated one more area for practicing of HR roles.

Safety and Health Issue

Since the hotel industry, is the service industry, hence the safety and health aspects of employee is concern for the organization, as employee are assets of service industry. The whole and soul responsibility of employee health and safety measures lie on the shoulder of HR department. Hence such types of measures reduce the chances of accidents.

Trade unions

Trade unions are voluntary organizations of employees or employers are formed to promote and protect their interests through collective action. Contrary to popular perception, unions are not meant only to organize strikes. Their presence is felt in all HR activities of an organization. Unions have political affiliations. But some hotels experience tremendous pressure from these trade unions whereas in some hotels trade unions are present for name shake only. The unions, which are present in most of the hotel, are Bhartiya Kamgar Sena (headed by Shiv-Sena).

360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

360 degree appraisals are a powerful developmental method and quite different to traditional manager-subordinate appraisals. As such a 360 degree process does not replace the traditional one-to-one process - it augments it, and can be used as a stand-alone development method.

360 degree appraisals involve the appraisee receiving feedback from people (named or anonymous) whose views are considered helpful and relevant.

360° Feedback is a proven method of helping individuals reviews their performance through the eyes of their working colleagues. The feedback is typically provided on a form showing job skills/abilities/attitudinal/behavioural criteria and some sort of scoring or value judgement system. The appraisee should also assess themselves using the same feedback instrument or form.

BENCHMARKING

Benchmarking is the process of determining who is the very best, who sets the standard, and what that standard is. In baseball, you could argue that seven consecutive World Series Championships made the New York Yankees the benchmark. It is done to motivate people to improve toward that goal.

Benchmarking is usually part of a larger effort, usually a Process Re-engineering or Quality Improvement initiative. Benchmarking is a management tool that is being applied almost anywhere. Once we decide what to benchmark, and how to measure it, the object is to figure out how the winner got to be the best and determine what we have to do to get there.

Hyatt's Human Resource Strategy: Focus 2000

Hyatt has an ambitious plan to find, train, and keep quality employees during the next 10 years - Focus 2000. Recruitment, training, recognition, retention, communications, volunteerism and community involvement are important components of the plan. One priority of focus 2000 is keeping tabs of management and line employees. The Hyatt Management Manpower Inventory is a program to keep track of the locations, performance and wage scales of more than 8000 management-level employees in the company. The information, which is compiled on computer at each hotel and sent to corporate offices, includes the employees' levels of interest in promotion, geographic preferences and the availability of other employees to fill their slots if they are promoted. One another program provides more statistical indicators of a property's success and helps the corporate and regional staffs identify potential personnel problem areas. The strongest component of the focus 2000 program is employee communications. The chain has always had clear, meaningful two-way lines of communication. Morgan, corporate director of employee relations, discusses Hyatt's commitment to employee communications. "We try to share with employees as much information as possible about the company and how it's performing. Our approach is always to be honest and instill in them a sense of ownership in the company. Then if the company or an individual hotel has a problem, sales are down, for example, we can openly discuss the impact of the situation and what we can do together to solve it."

The policies and functioning of each hotel is little bit similar to other hotels. Good HR policy would be the policy, which not only considers all HR functions with proper care, but also considers all the other factors like culture of the hotel, types of customers it receives, the nature of the business and also the place from where it operates. And the hotels, considering all the above factors to achieve the organizational goal while framing its HR functions is said to have been following good policy. For example in Hotel Sea Princess, the employee care is given first priority. In case if some of the relative of an employee dies or suffers from some serious disease, the manager sends all the colleagues of that employee to support him and thus manager makes himself aware of that employee's condition. This makes the employee feel that management cares for him. This will definitely motivate him to work in the interest of organization. There work environment is quite friendly and hence employees can discuss their problems openly.

In small hotels, the HR functions are not that developed. It needs more attention especially for the hotels aiming to expand their business. The hotels should neglect the fact that the frustration level in this industry is highest of all industries. The very first disappointment employee's face that the industry is not glamorous the way it was hyped in catering colleges. Their frustration level keeps on rising when they go through the following circumstances. Employees do not have time for their personal life. They have to do overtime for many of the reasons and for such extra time they are not even paid. For example if the waiter A's working hours are from 6 am to 2 pm and at 1.30 pm some guests arrives on the A's table then A cannot leave unless the guest leaves the table. Thus A will be forced to do overtime till the time those guests are sitting on the table. And for this extending period A is not even paid. Also in this industry number of working days and number of working hours are higher than any other industry and also employees are compelled to work on Sundays and Bank Holidays when all the others have holidays. (Source Ramada Plaza) The most frustrating part of this industry is the fact that besides going through all the frustrations employees are not paid the amount they deserve. Salary paid to them is really low when we compare it with their frustration level. Thus because of these facts most of the employees leaves their job.

And now when our country is trying to develop tourism for the development of our economy, it has become mandatory for us to provide hotel-services up to international standards and this is possible only when our hotels are in position to cope with this frustration level of employees. They need to be given proper training and also the career opportunities for their future. And first of all they should be aware of the facts of this industry before they join in, so that after entering their frustration level would be low as they will be prepared for everything. Thus, the responsibility of an HR manager is much higher in this industry.

Article name: Introduction To Human Resource Department Management essay, research paper, dissertation