Investigating The Language In Man From Appendix English Language
Steuart displayes a masculine discursive style in communicate with caterers in the excerpt. He expresses his request by directly directives in line 1. Steuart asks an interrogative question (can I talk to somebody) and follows by a need statement immediately (I need to place an order). The interrogative question signals that Steuart requests an order on tomorrow. He proposes the request in the form of directive rather than a question.
The need statement directly get cater to provide the catering services tomorrow. Steuart called for three different caterers. He also requests the catering service in need statements in the beginning of the telephone conversation (line 2, 4, 7, 9) which demonstrated a masculine discourse style. Steuart used a tag question in line 6, (you're a full-service catering company right?).
He does not seek the approval of caterer through politeness (Lakoff, 2000). In fact, He seems to produce a challenging question to caterer and he probably implies the meaning that "You are a full-service catering company". In line 7, Steuart confirms the service with caterer with "just" in his statement (line 9). According to Brown and Levinson 1987, modal particles (e.g. just, probably, perhaps) would reduce the face-threatening force. In fact, Steuart seems to use "just" to ensure the commitment made with the caterer.
Steuart used superlative adjective to describe their situation such as "real big jam" which is the characteristic of man's talk(line 7). In the whole excerpt, Steurart only uses the pronoun "I" six times and the inclusive pronoun "we" once (line 1 to 10) in situations where his involvement is clearly evident.Investigating the Language in woman from appendix 2 (Poppy, subordinate)Clint team prepared poster and place cards to put outside the venue of the concert in order to welcome the guests. His teammates, Poppy and Mahsa, discovered a spelling mistake on the poster and place cards before the night of holding the concert. In the excerpt, Poppy asked her groupmate, Mahsa, to double-check the spelling before reporting to Clint (line 1). The act of the interrogative question directs Mahsa to check the spelling.
This might be an interactional and facilitative act of Poppy which did the conversational work by trying to get a response from the other speaker, (Fishman 1990). Poppy used tag question to seek the agreement of Mahas through politeness (Lakoff, 2000). For example "Is this 100% wrong, right?" (line 2). Mahas answered her tag question in more directly and her language is more forthright "Yeah"(line 3) (Lakoff 1990).
Study by Lakoff (2004) also claimed that the rising intonation can leave addressee "an option of deciding how seriously to take". Poppy raised her intonation in the word "me" (line 6). Poppy would like to invite Clint to consider her explanation seriously because that would be an important barrier for Clint to be the apprentice of Mr Trump. Poppy reported the problem to client indirectly by stating "we have a problem" (line 8) first rather than she just speak out the problem directly. Poppy and Clint did not report the serious mistake to Clint and they try to fix the problem but they still could not solve the problem.
Poppy seemed to feel uncertain about her behavior as she did not report to Clint immediately. Poppy used rising intonation in the wordings, "without telling you" (line 12). According to Lakoff (2004), the speaker uses rising intonation in the wordings to show her uncertainty.Investigating the Language in Man from appendix 2 (Clint, Project Manager)In the scenario, Poppy was reporting the serious mistake on the poster to Clint. While Poppy is explaining the mistake which can not be fix it, Clint interrupts her conversation by "Nothing we can't fix" (line 9). The meaning of Clint is contradictory to that of Poppy.
It displays one of the masculine stylistic features of gendered communication is confrontational and aggressive interruptions. Fisherman (1983) also shows that "male speakers dominate a conversation by interrupting". Clint orders Poppy to report the problem to him in line 7 (Speak to me, Poppy). He establishes his position as project manager in the team by dominating the conversation. After Poppy finish her reporting, Clint replied Poppy by one short sentence only, "Let's me handle it."(line 13).
Clint is responsible for the ultimate problem and he use the personal pronoun "me" to emphasis the responsibility. He uses a "need" statement to get the publisher to print the poster again (line 23).Investigating the Language in Man from appendix 3 (Brandy, project manager)Liza proposed to set the golf tournament's prize as a golf equipment (line 1). From the interview, Brand explicitly criticizes Liza's idea as their entire guests are wealthy and the golf equipment is not value to the guest.
However in the meeting Brandy does not criticize Liza's idea explicitly and directly. According to Tannen (1994) "women are far more likely to mitigate criticisms and save face in this way than men". In the meeting, Brand would accept the opinion from her teammates, such as Anand's suggestion (line 2) and Brand would give positive feedbacks (line 5) which are the stylistic features of feminine communication.
Brandy adapts "a collaborative interactional style with emphasis on the interpersonal dimension is a central characteristic of 'feminie' workplaces" (Coates 1996).The responsibility of Donald Trump Assistant is observing and evaluating candidates' performance so it is very crucial to perform before the assistant. While Donald Trump Assistant is asking the progress of Brandy's team, her teammates Liza and Stephanie interrupt Brandy's speech respectively. According to the finding of Woods (1989), the male subordinates interrupt on more occasions than female subordinates. However, in the meeting the two ladies subordinate interrupt Brandy's speech rather than the male subordinate, Anand. When Brandy's reporting their team progress, Brandy used six times of inclusive pronoun "we" in the conversation.
It displays that Brandy's is a collaborative team ladder and she is emphasizing the concept of a team. She promotes the equal status with her subordinates and plays down her own authority which is the characteristic of a feminine leadership style.
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