Crime is not restricted to any one nation. One country's laws may deem an act criminal, while another does not. It is also not easy to determine rates accurately because the reporting systems may be different or there may be discouragement toward victims in reporting wrongdoings upon them. Data sets used to study crime globally are provided by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (p. 35). To simplify and coordinate information from responding countries, surveys with standard...
Proponents of juvenile justice agree that children sometimes make mistakes and deserve another chance for redemption. Many also agree that passive punishments are critical in the maturity and evolution of the child as he enters adulthood. If this were the case, why are facilities in America operating at fifty percent over capacity? Why do halfway houses in the US see admission rates skyrocket by one-hundred percent? The answer is quite simple. Before the age of 12, many youngsters begin...
However, the legislation governing sentencing is the Criminal Justice Act 2003. The purposes of sentencing are set out under s.142 which states that: Any court dealing with an offender in respect of his offence must have regard to the following purposes of sentencing: the punishment of offenders, the reduction of crime (including its reduction by deterrence), the reform and rehabilitation of offenders, the protection of the public, and the making of reparation by offenders to persons affected...
In order to appropriately address the topic of discussion, firstly, it is important to understand what is meant by the concept 'police culture'. After establishing its definition, it then becomes a task to assess whether 'police culture' does indeed have a negative influence on the way the police work as an institution or whether it merely ensures that a certain level of consistency in achieved in terms of the way officers conduct themselves in their daily working environment. The term...
There are many theories of crime which fit into four different models each explaining crime through varied approaches, in this essay I will be discussing the weakest of these theoretical explanations of crime and the strongest. The weakest theory of crime is Biological Positivism which is part of the Predestined Actor Model which is a positivist model explaining criminal behaviour based on scientific factors beyond a person's control. Biological positivism has been heavily criticised by many...
There are many social issues within the United States that affect out society everyday. One of the main struggles that one group faces socially would be the African American men of our country. This is however nothing new to this group being they have dealt with this injustice for many years even before we desegregated ourselves as a nation. With all of the advancements we as a society have made there is still a major stereotype that the African American men face everyday. For many years...
Domestic violence (DV) is a common problem that is common worldwide. Up until the late 20th century, DV was socially acceptable in cultures dominated by men and it was justified in some traditions and customs and the law refused to acknowledge its existence (Hoyle, et al, 2000). Many definitions of DV put forward and this essay will use McCue's (2008) definition of DV. McCue, (2008) defines DV as emotional, sexual psychological or physical abuse perpetrated against a person by their partner,...
Prisons do not exist in a vacuum. They exist because society decided that they should be used as a method of responding to crime. In order to better understand the nature of imprisonment, it is first necessary to examine its conceptual basis (punishment), and then consider the various debates, or rather theories, to justify the purpose of prisons. These theoretical discussions are deterrence, retribution, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. In England and Wales (E&W) imprisonment is an...
Juvenile Delinquent is a young person, under the adult age (in Malta, under the age of sixteen) who was engaged in a criminal behaviour. The Maltese Civil Code defines a minor "as a person of either sex who has not yet attained the age of eighteen years". Additionally the Maltese Criminal Code [] provides certain protection from severe punishments and even no punishment to minors despite the fact that a minor was involved in a criminal offence. Children under the age of...
Intimate partner violence is often experienced as a pattern, but sometimes it is possible to narrow down a progressing pattern of victimization. In 2006, Bowlus and Seitz determined two main factors in following the patterns of behaviour in abusive relationships, regardless of marriage status. First, the pattern of violence is cyclical, beginning with the stressor, an act of violence which is followed by repentance. Second, the women is characterized as becoming helpless. She is afraid to...