Terrorisms impacted the police mission in several different ways. Police are being required to significantly expand their duties which have had an overall impact on the many other facets of policing they are already responsible for. Law enforcement has been that of community policing, dealing with the common day to day issues encountered within their jurisdictions such as domestic violence, murder, theft, drugs to name a few. Police work has been pretty straight forward until 911 when it...
Discuss the extent to which psychological research convincingly indicates that criminals are different from non-criminals. The causation of criminality is a prominent concern for our entire society. As a collective society we have what could be described as a vested interest in determining causation. Collectively, as a society we endeavour to live within societial norms and expectations, believing it to be for the common good, we are in possession of a social conscience. But how does the...
Prostitution, as described by the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary (1997), is the selling of sexual favors for money or the devoting of oneself or one's talent to an unworthy cause (p. 589). In another frame of reference, prostitution has been called a "victimless crime." What exactly is a "victimless crime"? West's Encyclopedia of American defines it as: …crime where there is no apparent victim and no apparent pain or injury. This class of crime usually involves only...
Parole is not a sentence; rather, it is the extension of a prison into the community and under the supervision of the parole authority, which is a branch of the prison system. Prisoners are eligible for parole after they have served a minimum number of years of their sentence as dictated by state statutes and the discretion of the judge. A parole board reviews their crimes, their criminal histories, and their behaviors in prison to decide whether the prisoners can be supervised safely in the...
For years, the symbol of the future has been the coming of new decade; the arrival of new century. Whether the field is medicine, space exploration or criminal justice, that turn of the calendar has held unique fascination. Now as we approach the new decade, a new reality is forming from that fascination. Still distant enough to pique our curiosity but close enough that our expectations and analysis regarding crimes and punishment can be guided by reality, life in the next decade can be the...
In order to approach this question one will begin to give a critical overview of what racism and institutional racism mean and the effects it has on societal fabrics. Furthermore instances of racist attacks in Great Britain that caused uproars and how governmental institutions were deemed to be racists from findings, and how to implement the recommendations given to combat institutional discrimination. In putting this situation into proper context, one has to cast their minds back to two...
For many countries, criminal justice system and legal system could not provide a substantial protection on the vulnerable targets; therefore, there will be a reform on the system. In October 2006, the Secretary for Justice and the Chief Justice asked for a reviewal on the laws governing the sexual and related offences and "to consider whether a scheme for the registration of offenders convicted of such offences should be established" (Sexual offences records checks, 2010, p.1; Panel...
In 1993, there were four car bombs in London. This attack was the first terrorist using car bombs in the 20th. In this attack, a plethora of innocent people were injured. At the same time, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) declared they would be with responsibility with this attack (Holtorp, 1994). It become worth mentioning the terrorist bombing attacks continue to occur in the mainland of the UK. To date, the issues of terrorism have appealed to considerable attention from the public,...
This author is of the opinion that torture can in no ay be justified even in so called ticking bomb cases. However, he notes that in some high consequence situations it cannot be avoided. In such circumstances decision whether application of torture is legal must weigh equally with seriousness of the threat. This is for the essence of prevention of future incidences of torture. The article begins by observing that the use of torture and/or cruel and degrading treatment has become a core...
The conditions under which deviant behavior exists have presented an enduring question for researchers. Within the literature the majority of definitions of deviance share one commonality: that social norms and values subjectively label behaviors as deviant. Similar to the number of theories of deviance there exist a number of motivations why individuals choose to engage in deviant behavior. Existing theories-general strain, anomie, labeling, control, and learning-examine these factors and...