A Criminal Investigation is the process of discovering, collecting, preparing, identifying and presenting evidence to determine what happened and who is responsible. It is a reconstructive process that uses deductive reasoning, a logical process in which a conclusion follows from specific facts. From specific pieces of evidence, investigators establish proof that a suspect is guilty of an offence. (Hess & Orthmann, 2010) In this assignment I'm going to provide a clear understanding of an...
The aim of this first chapter is to outline sentencing practice and procedure in England and Wales from the 1980's until 2003 both generally and regarding custodial sentences of 0-12 months in length. It will provide an overview of how the current themes of sentencing have got to where they are today, setting the scene for chapter 2. The Halliday Report [] and Patrick Carter's 'managing offenders reducing crime' [] paper will be explored in this section when thinking about...
The United States has seen an increased mandate for forensic tools to combat terrorist activities, in part due to an increased use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), both home and abroad. In Afghanistan in September 2009, there were 806 IED incidents, of which 106 were classified as 'effective attacks' (Schogol, 2009). Within the borders of the United States, from 2004-2006, there were 10,957 incidents with 546 injuries and 68 deaths but only 2,174 investigations were referred for...
For most Americans the freedom to avoid a cruel and unusual punishment is granted within the Eighth Amendment of the Bill of Rights. A heinous crime is committed, an individual is found to be guilty in a court of law, and death is a possible sentence. Many Americans agree that this system of criminal justice has served its purpose for decades. The problem lies in determining how old a person should be when considering the death penalty. Should juveniles be sentenced to death? And if found that...
The offence of burglary is defined by section 9 of the Theft Act 1968. It states that a person is guilty of committing the offence of burglary if they enter a building as a trespasser with the intent to steal or indeed attempts or is successful in stealing anything in the building. (Theft Act, 1968) Despite the fact that the number of burglaries that have been committed has consistently decreased over the past 15 years, it still remains one of the most prevalent forms of criminal attack in the...
Criminal patterns by women and by men have both similarities and differences. Women and men are more prone to committing minor substance abuse and property crimes, rather than serious ones like murder or robbery. The main gender disparity in criminal activity is that men commit offenses at a higher rate than women do, except for prostitution (Heidensohn). Gender difference is more distinct in serious crimes, while it is least discernible in petty ones, which is a phenomenon called "gender...
Current policies of drug law enforcement are far more costly in achieving 'drug-free' society; and therefore it is better to tolerate the relative amount of crimes, as long as it does not have a negative impact on health (Shepard & Blackley, 2007). In order to control and decrease drug related crime rates, drug law enforcement's approach to disrupt marijuana supply and demand had been failing, and causes for an increase in crime including non-drug crimes, and marijuana crimes (Shepard...
One must be aware that the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child professes anyone under the age of eighteen is a "child". However, in the criminal law, greater distinctions are made: anyone under 18 is a 'juvenile', aged 14-18 are classed as 'young persons' and a person under 14 years old are classed definitively as a "child". What does it mean to be a child in this modern era? Every person has experienced life as a child and could easily accumulate their own...
Crime and deviance is a complex topic as it raises questions concerning the nature of crime. While deviance is regarded as the breaking of social norms, crime is the breaking of laws. Giddens (2009, p.938-40) describes the 'concept of deviance to be much broader then that of crime'. We are less prone to deviant behaviour due to socialisation, yet most will be subject to non-con-formative behaviour at some point in their lives. This is due to the reactions of sanctions to certain actions. The...
Around the 18th century, there were many ways that executions could be carried out. Some of these executions included burning at the stake, the wheel, guillotine, hanging and the garrote, and headmans axe. Burning at the stake was the most well-liked death sentence. It was used mostly for heretics and witches, this form of death penalty dates all the way back to the Christian era. The wheel is another type of execution that was used during the middle ages. There were a number of ways to use the...