The USA PATRIOT Act is a statute enacted by the United States Congress that President George W. Bush signed into law on October 26, 2001. The contrived acronym stands for "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism" Act. The Act increases the ability of law enforcement agencies to search telephone, e-mail communications, medical, financial, and other records; eases restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within...
Introduction Classical choice theory dates back the 18th century and probably forms the bases of other theories too. This school of thought find it context by basing an argument that people are at liberty in decision making and therefore will behave in a manner that best suits their desires (Ambroise, 2006). The theory attributes that crime can be curbed to greater extent if there is a mobilization in societies to avert from getting influenced by their desires and pleasures in taking an action...
This paper talks about some issues related to the cost of crime. It presents different findings and questions; victim costs regarding the effect on individual well-being, as well as crime cost to the community and the police; it shows some of the spending made by police and government agencies. It also gives a paradoxical theory about the relation between existence of crime and job opportunities for law enforcement officers. The paper examines the increase of the annual cost of crime in the...
'Men are aggressors and women are victims' is a very stereotypical view might be held by the majority of society and by some of the first criminologists; however criminology has evolved to try and understand how this stereotype has come to be seen as the norm within crime. They also try exploring whether this stereotype is in fact true or whether there are various differences. To understand the part of this stereotype that women are victims we must first look into the role of a victim. The role...
The purpose of the Criminal Justice System is to deliver justice to all, by protecting innocent members of the society, to punish and convict criminals and to provide help to them in an attempt to stop them offending; at least that is what the society expects of the Criminal Justice System. It is supposed to deliver justice in a fair manner regardless of gender. However much is written that suggests otherwise. Chivalry, believed by Pollak (1960) is a theory which claims that women are treated...
"murder is when a man of sound memory and of the age of discretion, unlawfully killeth within any country of the realm any reasonable creature in rerum natura under the king's peace, with malice aforethought, either expressed by the party or implied law, so as the party wounded or hurt, etc, die of the wound or hurt, within a year and a day of the same." The aim of this essay is to determine whether the case study is typical of homicides and also to analyse in general and to clarify...
Self concept is the idea of looking at ones self either with high or low regard. One can look at herself or himself with high or low regard. The main objective of self concept is to show where people should not tell anyone who they are instead you should tell yourself who you would like to be. Self-confidence, self-worth and self-esteem are not tangible goods; they are cultivated and made part of human-beings. This paper shall focus on self-image and how it may lead to crime. It will explore...
Terrorisms impacted the police mission in several different ways. Police are being required to significantly expand their duties which have had an overall impact on the many other facets of policing they are already responsible for. Law enforcement has been that of community policing, dealing with the common day to day issues encountered within their jurisdictions such as domestic violence, murder, theft, drugs to name a few. Police work has been pretty straight forward until 911 when it...
Discuss the extent to which psychological research convincingly indicates that criminals are different from non-criminals. The causation of criminality is a prominent concern for our entire society. As a collective society we have what could be described as a vested interest in determining causation. Collectively, as a society we endeavour to live within societial norms and expectations, believing it to be for the common good, we are in possession of a social conscience. But how does the...
Prostitution, as described by the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary (1997), is the selling of sexual favors for money or the devoting of oneself or one's talent to an unworthy cause (p. 589). In another frame of reference, prostitution has been called a "victimless crime." What exactly is a "victimless crime"? West's Encyclopedia of American defines it as: …crime where there is no apparent victim and no apparent pain or injury. This class of crime usually involves only...