The Editor In Print And Online Environment Media
Nowadays media is considered a mirror of the modern society. One of the reasons is because it shapes our lives and can influence it in many ways. The purpose of the media is to inform, educate and entertain. Media unfortunately doesn't always have a positive influence upon people. Some believe that it is a way of distorting the viewer's minds and some others that create pressure on people by imposing new ways of dressing, eating or even how to think.
Changes in communications technologies and infrastructures have significantly altered the ability of firms and individuals to communicate. Until the development of electronics and satellite technologies in the second half of the twentieth century, communications systems were based on relatively basic technologies that evolved slowly.1 The development of improved telecommunications systems set the stage for a wide range of changes in communications capabilities that were embraced by firms in many industries, including media.2 Technologies for fixed and mobile telecommunications, Internet, broadcasting, satellite and cable distribution are rapidly changing, providing ever more capabilities and ease of use.
Media, no doubt, played a significant role in reducing the communication gaps amongst people and made their lives much easier through television and internet. That of course doesn't change the fact that media has become a commercialized sector which is interested mostly about the rating points.
On January 8, 2011, U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords and eighteen other people were shot during a public meeting held in a supermarket parking lot in Casas Adobes, near Tucson, Arizona. Six of those people died. 3 Gifford's was holding a constituent meeting called "Congress on Your Corner" in the parking lot of a Safeway store when prosecutors allege Jared Lee Loughner drew a pistol and shot her in the head, subsequently firing on other people.4 Media reported that Gabrielle Gifford had died after being shot in the head which was incorrect. The mistake that media made caused the Representatives Gifford's husband to believe that his wife was dead.5 NPR News' executive editor apologized to Gifford's' family for the false report.6
Somebody can notify that, the most responsible job for somebody in media is the editors. A print editor may be in charge of a team or writers, and in this capacity review story ideas proposed by them, and generate ideas for them. While reviewing written material, they may make suggestions to the writer on how to improve the work, and often offer title options. An editor working in a publishing industry would review proposals and manuscripts for books, assess the quality of it, and decide whether or not their firm should buy the publication rights for it.7
The editors that focus more in the online world have a very different job than one in a traditional print position. The online world is one of interactivity, which may involve creating single-loop feedbacks, such as real-time polls, or developing community-oriented content-information that is taken from people responding to a site. On the other hand print media is geared toward the masses; interactive content relies on an understanding of the one-to-one nature of the Web.8
They "need to set up and implement the roadmap to digital migration; getting audiences more informed and engaged in sustainable development; managing change as the industry exploits the internet and social media; strengthening initiatives to promote press freedom and freedom of expression particularly in transition states and in conflict ridden countries; and ensuring relevance and sustainability of public service broadcasting and advance media literacy especially among the young and across various delivery platforms" states the Director Yang Binyuan at the closing of the AMS 2012.9 The only purpose of media should be to honestly inform and be always neutral. Media is obliged to make people see the truth and not try to affect their prospective, values and beliefs of the viewers. That is what the main purpose of the editor should be.
Editor's job over the years has been difficult and full of responsibilities and anxiety. Nowadays editors have the ability to use Twitter and Facebook, which are social media platforms most commonly used for marketing purposes. Facebook offers the option of creating a fan page for a company or product, while Twitter makes use of posts that users follow. Blogs are online journals written by users, which can be influential in spreading news and information. The main advantage of social media marketing is cost-related. The majority of social media sites are free to access, create a profile and post information. The advantage of reaching your targeted market for little or no cash investment is substantial, and the audience wanting your information voluntarily joins or follows you.
That means that an editor can post news, ideas and find out what his audience wants, so he can improve the way that the stories are written and add new things. Another thing also is that the viral nature of social media means that each person who reads your posts has the capability to spread the news farther within his own network, so information can reach a large number of people in a short time.
On the other hand, the fact that things are easier doesn't mean that media does not struggle against the new market environment. The newspaper and magazine industries have existed for three centuries, the motion picture and radio industries for about a century, and television industry for half a century. Because of a variety of governmental policy choices and operational conditions, the industries and their markets have been relatively stable, requiring little strategic thinking during their life cycles. As a result, media managers' knowledge of strategy and strategy processes are limited and most media firms do not have strategy units or organized business intelligence activities. 10
Editor's strategy is the result of planning and decisions to meet challenges in the marketplace. As the market and the preferences of the people become more complex, the need to change strategy processes increases and significant planning efforts are needed. The editor's job through all that is to have a strong command and control over his team, so the social media can overcome the challenges of the media market.
It is important to underline the role of the advertisers in media. Advertisers are critical to the success of commercial media because they provide the primary revenue stream for most media operations. Advertisers provide these financial resources as they pursue their own interests in marketing their products and services. They are not wed to particular media but to using the most effective means of reaching customers. That means that when a channel does better in ratings than another one, the advertisers will choose the one with the most popularity.
The work of the editor is always to find out what the viewers are interested in and that the new trends of social media can always stay on track. Of course that creates a lot of pressure for the editors, because as audiences have embraced additional media types, advertisers have shifted shares of their expenditures to those media. As audiences have fragmented and declined for established media and channels, advertisers have been unwilling to pay the same prices they had previously paid for those media and channels.
The advertisers have played a critical role in the development of social media also because of the increase in the number of units of each media. That has also increased the levels of competition experienced in media markets by strengthening the number of direct competitors and the substitutable and partly substitutable content products available.
The number of television stations in Europe has effectively tripled since 1990 and dozens of cable and satellite channels are available in most markets. Head-to-head competition between general circulation newspapers has generally decreased in developed nations, but new competition from specialized dailies focused on topics such as business/finance and sports, and the appearance of free circulation daily newspapers such as Metro, are serving a need of readers and advertisers that has not been met by traditional newspapers. In most nations, the number of magazines available has increased more than 400 percent in the last half century.11 The effects of these developments are increased competition for consumer spending, declining profits per title, channel, or product, and decline profits for firms in most established media industries.
As we have seen, editors job is very demanding, both in online and in print environment. Nowadays because internet has been increasing rapidly, many believe that print media is no longer useful. It is believed that newspapers are a waste of money, are old fashioned and bad for the environment. It is also mentioned that until a few years ago, the news on websites and in newspapers was similar in that it was a text based format. Now news websites features videos, pictures and public comments all of which engage the reader and bring the situation to life.12
On the other hand, someone can see that reports have surfaced that attempts will be made to start charging for access to various new sites. Rupert Murdoch, the CEO of The News Corporation stated that the "quality content is not free. In the future, good journalism will depend on the ability of a news organization to attract customers by providing news and information they are willing to pay for." He also continued by saying that "the old business model based mainly on advertising is dead. Let's face it: A business model that relies primarily on online advertising cannot sustain newspapers over the long term. The reason is simple arithmetic. Though online advertising is increasing, that increase is only a fraction of what is being lost with print advertising."13
Newsprint industry is trying to find ways to increase their reader's experience. The fact is that nowadays tablets and smartphones are transforming the news industry as internet connected devices replace traditional mobile phones at an unprecedented rate, bringing the web to the palm of your hand at prices nearly everyone can afford. A research project between Dundee, Surrey and the University of Central Lancashire are trying to build an Interactive Newsprint that aims to integrate the rich media of the web into traditional news print, thanks to an innovative new form of internet connected paper. Working with technology company Novalia and funded by the Digital Economy (DE) Programme, the three universities are researching and developing printed electronics that work in conjunction with ordinary paper to add capacitive touch functionality to the printed page.14
There are many scenarios where information is better served on paper than on an electronic device, and with that in mind, there is no doubt that this technology can, and will, have a place in the future of print media. Exactly how large a part it will play however, is still very hard to predict. The development of such a technology is exciting and is destined to lead to some ingenious applications in the future.
Of course the editor's job, if the project works, is to approach new readers. This will be challenging because it's going to be something that nobody has ever seen before and everybody will be cautious. A good editor will have the opportunity to make innovations and bring interesting and stories to the surface, so that the readers would get interested. All this of course depends on how easy this Interactive Newsprint will be to use and its price range.
An editor should have an instinct for recognizing patterns, organizing ideas and creating categories. They also need to a willingness to question assumptions, theories and facts and most importantly an interest in learning new things. An editor must not only be proficient in grammar, spelling and composition, but also have the ability to visualize the end product while focusing on and remembering details, think logically and exercise good judgment, reorganize a document to achieve clarity and momentum, recognize what's missing in a passage, use a wide range of reference materials, work within deadlines and lastly keep an eye on the budget and work well with the many other people who are a part of the publication process.
It is interesting also to mention that editors come from a variety of different backgrounds, but they are all skilled at developing effective communications tools by identifying the most appropriate structure, format and content for each audience and purpose. Ultimately, editors are people who think, and they do so on behalf of both the writer and the reader.
The job of the editor as it is said above is very stressing, but not only because of the deadlines and the work load but also the opportunities that are given to actually work as an editor. Editors have the opportunity to choose between two career paths, the one if the freelancer (self-employed) and in-house (part-or full-time) editing work. Of course those brings the question on how a journalist is interested in making money or just follow their dream job and see what happens.15
A freelancer editor has a flexible schedule and can also choose their colleagues and clients, to a degree. They can also focus on marketing their services to industries they are interested in. Since freelance editors generate their income from a variety of employers (as independent contractors) rather than earning a consistent salary from just one, they may have to cope with a variable sales cycle and fluctuating annual income. Whereas an in-house editor's income is fixed except for annual raises, freelancers can choose to seek out higher-paying clients and/or work longer hours.
Editors who work in-house generally know what their schedule and pay will be every month. Many (but not all) work regular business hours, although the workload varies with the type of job they have. There has been a marked increase in demand for freelance editing because of the blossoming of technology used in publishing and the changing marketplace. Today, CEOs often see hiring an independent contractor as an economical alternative to hiring full-time staff.16
Despite this, editor's nowadays have not so many chances of finding a job. This is happening because journalists have to compete with many others, who were trained in a publishing company and have quite a few years' experience. However, some areas of publishing are more in need of freelance editors and proofreaders than others. If somebody has expertise in a particular subject, they may stand a better chance on finding a job than others.
In conclusion, editor's job is crucial because media are responsible to deliver the news and inform sincerely and honestly. An editor needs to be always neutral and find ways to make his viewers stay tuned and interested. Editors despite the work problems that they face, if they are dedicated and efficient can serve as a great force in building the nation and people's ideals.
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