Impact of tsunami in band ache
Tsunamis are new threat to lives, property, infrastructure located on the coastal are of the world's oceans. 2004 Tsunami deeply impacted the coast of Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka and India. Aceh province in Indonesia is heavily affected coastal area due to Tsunami. Tsunami waves permanently devastated the shore by 1.5Kilometres inland and over 65 square Kilometres of land between Lhoknga Beach to Banda Aceh, which excludes some farmlands and the lowland vegetation which are washed away. The land cover change and land use in Aceh province are classified with pre and post Tsunami satellite data. The farmlands and the houses in the coastal area are washed till 5Km inland in the Banda Aceh region. Estimation of housing and the agriculture land in the washed away regions for the disrupted livelihoods in the coastal communities.INTRODUCTION
In the morning of the Tsunami the earthquake magnitude was triggered to 9.0 off the northwest coast of Sumatra on the year of 2004, there was an immediate global action to assess the coastal areas in the affected countries for an emergency response. The propagation of Tsunami in Indian Ocean has caused extensive damage to 12 countries. The closest location to the epicenter of the earthquake is Aceh Province in Indonesia, which was the worst affected. “The severe damage to property and infrastructure in the province capital Kota Bandar Aceh, the surrounding district of Aceh Besar and the western district of Aceh Jaya was evident from the collection of high-resolution satellite images that were posted on many internet sites as a humanitarian response by the remote sensing and geospatial community” (ASM 2005; NOAA 2005). The images were very useful for analysing the affected areas and the damage caused can be analysed, which was not possible to access the affected areas on that time. The impact of the tsunami has heavily damaged the areas in the north-western part and the other coastal communities, which are damaged in other districts to the east of Indonesia. The damage caused to the farmlands, fishing boats, aquaculture ponds and cages disrupted the people in the coastal region.
The affected people communities need help to restore the situation from their setbacks, but people's rehabilitation efforts need to be made equitably within a correct planning context to avoid the mistakes which happened in past coastal development (Subasinghe and Phillips 2005; Stobutzki and Hall 2005). Different international categories came in to help with the local agencies, to carry out assessments on the heavy damage to the people and to their house and farmlands in the coastal region.
High resolution remote sensing imagery could provide these maps which demonstrate the extent of the damage in the Aceh province. The satellite imagery was mainly focused on Kota Bandar Aceh, Aceh Besar and Aceh Jaya districts are the regions which have lost more life and land.METHODOLOGY
The land cover changes in the Aceh province shows the new coastal appearance and the washed away regions. The satellite images to be used are pre and post Tsunami which covers the Aceh province and mostly the Banda Aceh region. Classification on these regions will show the changes in the land mass which has houses and farmlands in the coastal regions. There are two types of classification to be used for the analysis. Unsupervised and Supervised classification methods which are used to highlight the changes in the coastal region. Change detection method also proves the increase and decrease in changes in the land and especially the coastal parts which are heavily damaged in Tsunami.DATA
The images of Landsat-7/ETM/TM/SPOT-5 and IKONOS satellites are proposed for the classification. Using the high-resolution images the classification can be more accurate in the estimation of housing and the agricultural lands. High-resolution images of IKONOS are 1m resolution which is not easy to access. Landsat-7/ETM/TM/SPOT-5 satellite images have 30m to 60m resolution are available for the analysis.
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