McIntyre (2009) states that "the doctrine (or principle) of double effect is often invoked to explain the permissibility of an action that causes a serious harm, such as the death of a human being, as a side effect of promoting some good end. The double effect refers to the side effect that is caused by an action that was intended for good. It further elaborates that a harmful and foreseen event is permissible for as long as it was not intended. There are four conditions that must be...
Is Machiavelli for or against the republic? In this Essay, I will argue that Machiavelli is against the republic in The Prince. Machiavelli wrote this book for Lorenzo de' Medici who ruled Florentine Republic. When Machiavelli wrote The Prince the ideas in it were considered evil however, Machiavelli was just ahead of his time. Although it was often hard to distinguish which side Machiavelli is arguing but a critical analysis of The Prince will prove that Machiavelli is against the republic. ...
"Automata" is plural of Greek word "Automaton". As the name suggests it is used to automate objects. It has great implementation in real life of today's era as we are living in machine age, so almost everything is automated and automata has great part to play in it. As automata have its scope, but it is quite challenging as well. It is not easy to automate the objects in real life. Automata is a subject or field which is derived from our daily lives. If we think a little...
Since the 1960s, controversial debates have arisen regarding the level of the biological hierarchy at which natural selection takes place. In particular, views in opposition with one another have arisen between those that believe that the level of selection acts at the gene (e.g. Dawkins), the individual is the only biological level at which selection acts (e.g. Williams), and those who believe that natural selection may act on groups of organisms (e.g. Wynne-Edwards). According to Darwin,...
The Apology of Socrates was written by Plato and is a speech that was given by Socrates. Socrates was defending himself against charges that he was corrupting the young people and also his failure to believe in gods as the rest of the city inhabitants. It should be noted that Socrates wrote nothing and instead it was his pupils, Xenophon and Plato who put his ideas in writing. The book begins with Socrates denouncing Athenians of persuasion by his accusers and this forms the basis for the...
Ethical Naturalism is a term that is given to the idea that we need science in order to back what we think and believe to be true in the study of morality. Ethical Naturalism is also referred to as "moral naturalism". This is a difficult concept to understand given that most of what seemed to be presented on the notion is inferred, but most things in ethics are. Ethical Naturalism can also be understood through moral realism. Basically what this means is that everything we think or...
Many friends and colleagues have asked me what I think of Paul Krugman's New York Times Magazine article, "How did Economists get it so wrong?" Most of all, it's sad. Imagine this weren't economics for a moment. Imagine this were a respected scientist turned popular writer, who says, most basically, that everything everyone has done in his field since the mid 1960s is a complete waste of time. Everything that fills its academic journals, is taught in its PhD programs, presented at its...
I oppose the idea of Descartes that deals with the notion of dream and the idea that senses deceive us, taken from the First Meditation: Descartes formulated the methodic doubt because he argued that there are certain things that he had believed but it turned out to be erroneous and doubtful. Moreover, this method was also rooted from the principle that the senses are deceiving him, and in turn, he should not depend on it anymore with regards in arriving at certainty: "I have found that...
Descartes states his reasoning that he made various assumptions in his quest for knowledge. Descartes is a philosopher, which means the thought came to these conclusions. A reading of Descartes, he interprets his understanding of how and why the mind is better known than the body. He says, "myself in my since I formed the body and soul (spirit) taught by nature, sun, stars and sky. Descartes realized that could learn something from her body. Things like pain, if it touches a flame or...
During the seventeenth century when Hobbes and Locke were writing their influential works they bore witness to great social and political upheaval, but despite living in the same period, sharing similarities in background, and both witnessing events that reformed the political landscape of England, their outlooks on the appropriate role of government were starkly contrasting. The Hobbes-Locke dichotomy is a much analysed one, Hobbes, being an absolute monarchist, believed a society required one...