The focus for this essay is to present foundationalism in detail and discuss how foundationalism adequately addressed the problem of infinite regress with respect to justification.Foundationalism is a theory in epistemology that views that some beliefs are justified on the basis of sense experience or perception, or rational or logical intuition and called basic beliefs. These basic beliefs or foundation beliefs cannot be doubted and not inferred from other justified beliefs. These beliefs are...
When one thinks of 'meaning', it can be taken with a somewhat overbearing feeling of confusion. Since 'meaning' itself is too vast a topic to conclude all at once, many philosophers have taken the opportunity to try and make an explanation of it. They do this by looking at areas of language; some formal, some natural, some may look at mathematics or science; some outcomes may be more complex than others. Although a general definition of meaning can be "noun: what is meant by word, text,...
Whether a knowledge claim should be open to rational criticism relies on the area of knowledge being considered. In areas of knowledge, such as natural sciences, if a claim is not justified rationally then it can not be regarded as truth. Therefore these knowledge claims should be open to rational criticism. In other areas of knowledge such as aesthetics, a knowledge claim does not depend on reason or logic, so for it to be open to rational criticism may be unsuitable. In this essay, I will...
Many philosophers have attempted to establish a concrete solution to the question of morality. It is a difficult concept to define and administer since each person may have a different idea of moral values. That being the case, the philosopher Albert Camus claims that we cannot discover a universal moral standard. I agree with him. I think that each of us as individuals can recognize morality, but what we believe to be moral varies in different degrees for every person. Aside from Camus,...
History is cyclical. That is the simple nature of it. There are always old ideas, traditional views of the way the world works that have been in place for a long time that are supplanted by new, "radical" ideas. These new ideas stay in place and become tradition until they are replaced by newer ideas and so on and so forth. That is the way of history and it is no different in the history of America. New England was born with the Puritan view of God and human nature and it stuck with...
Philosophical problems arise when humans question themselves or others about the nature of events or things and their characteristics around them. More often than not, there are no direct or immediate answers to such imaginary questions. According to Garland (1979) the methods by which such questions are answered could be found from events from the past, moral or religious and social beliefs. The pursuit for answers gave rise to the period of enlightenment. According to the Oxford Dictionary,...
Despite the differences in the modes of presentation of the two philosophical pieces of art, the Republic and the Matrix tell the same story. Plato's well known allegory of the cave features the illusory aspect of truth as seen through the restrictions of the physical environment. In the same way, The Matrix depicts the illusory nature of truth that restricts a people to servitude without their knowledge. The two pieces of art depict how unreliable humanity's senses can be when bound by the...
Today technology plays a vital role in every aspect of life. Increasing standards in technology in many fields has been taken man today to high esteem. But the present available technologies are unable to interact with atoms, such a minute particles. Hence nanotechnology is used in this context. Nanotechnology is nothing but a technology which uses atoms with a view to creating desired product. It has wider application in all fields, the important application is CRYONICS. Cryonics is...
The possession of knowledge carries an ethical responsibility is a debatable proposition including the presence of arguments and counter arguments to prove it or decline its certainty. Evaluating this claim requires an explanation of the main part of it that is; does knowledge embody ethical responsibility in the first place? This evaluation and exploration would lead to further understanding of the topic in discussion. Deductions are still early at this stage of research, but to get more into...
Critical thinking is self-guided, self-disciplined thinking which attempts to reason at the highest level of quality in a fair-minded way.  People who think critically consistently attempt to live rationally, reasonably, empathically.   They are keenly aware of the inherently flawed nature of human thinking when left unchecked.  They strive to diminish the power of their egocentric and sociocentric tendencies.  They use the intellectual tools that critical thinking offers - concepts and...