In the article, Are Men ever directly aware of God, James considered 'mystical states of consciousness' as the centre and root of personal religious experiences which encompasses spectrum of experiences, from the unspiritual to the most devotedly profound. One of his arguments is that, we, humans, are in control of what we believe. This can be cross-referenced from his humanistic perspective in psychology. Moreover, he started his piece by defining the expression, 'mystical states of...
In this essay I am to conduct two interviews with practicing professionals in the field of law enforcement. During these interviews I will ask the following questions. Why are ethics and character so important in the field of law enforcement? Does the interviewees feel that police are more ethical today, or were they more ethical ten years ago? Why do police officers become involved in misconduct? Does the interviewees feel that there is enough training offered in ethics at the police academy...
Opinion will always remain as opinion. However, we cannot just rely on others opinion and take them for granted; supposedly the knowledge claim that has been raised should be examined first before they are taken as absolute truth. "People who avoid all criticism fail. It is the destructive criticism we need to avoid, not criticism in all forms." [] So, we can deduced that actually criticism can also bring positive effect to the knower by exposing the way or to what extent...
In a world full of diverse moral standards, how can conclusions made in the realm of medicine really be explained and justified? Some suggest that external pressures dictate, some propose internal factors influence, while some advocate a combination of the two. However, Tom L. Beauchamp (2001) argues that while these schools of thought may be on the right track, a separate perspective including important points from each of the above embraces the diversity in moral standards of different...
Ethics is the conscious reflection on our moral beliefs targeting to improve, extend or refine those beliefs in some way. Kantian moral and Utilitarianism theories attempt to respond to the ethical nature of human beings. Immanuel Kant's deontological ethical theory evaluates if actions are moral based on the person's will or intention of acting. Kant's theory can be categorized as a deontological becauseactions are not evaluated to be morally allowable on the foundation of consequences they...
Externalism has created a great deal of excitement within philosophy of mind and language. It is widely perceived to have overthrown traditional theories not only of meaning and mental content, but also of the nature of psychological states. Externalism has been so successful that the primary focus of today's debate is not so much on whether externalism is right or wrong, but rather on what its implications are. For instance, there is an on-going debate concerning the compatibility of...
Change is a central feature of any scientific field, as new data are collected and new and better theories are discovered. Physics, for example, has progressed enormously since the time of Galileo. In the nineteenth century, the pinnacle of success was Newtonian mechanics, but in the twentieth it has been superseded by an even more advanced theory, general relativity. In contrast, astrology and creationism are hopelessly static. Astrology is virtually unchanged since the days of Ptolemy, and...
In Humes essay of a standard taste he argues that there is a standardized sense of artistic opinion in us humans, similar to our standardized sense of ethical judgments e.g. murder being wrong, charity work being good and so forth. Certain objects time after time activate feelings of beauty within us. Just as we have the ability to filter our senses such as our appetite, we can also filter our sense of artistic appeal and so develop a delicacy of taste. Although, there are two factors which...
"Euthanasia: The word "euthanasia" comes straight out of the Greek -- "eu", goodly or well plus "thanatos", death = the good death -- and for 18th-century writers in England that was what euthanasia meant, a "good" death, a welcome way to depart quietly and well from life"(MedicineNet.com). Euthanasia is an issue that has and will remain up for debate for many years and will stay there forever. There are many issues that are focused on when...
The concept of analyzing legal rights in a broader sense was given by Professor Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld. Professor Hohfeld was born in 1879. He graduated in 1901 from the University of California and moved to Harvard Law School. There, he served in the capacity of editor of Harvard Law Review and graduated with honors in 1904. Professor Hohfeld then taught from 1905-1913 at Stanford Law School. Later in his career, he shifted to Yale Law School. He taught at the prestigious law school until his...