"Further, they claim that moral statements do not express truth-evaluable beliefs, but rather work primarily to express something non-cognitive, such as attitudes of approval or disapproval, or desire." - Adam M. Croom According to the Encyclopædia Britannica non-cognitivism is "Denial of the characteristic cognitivist thesis that moral sentences are used to express factual statements. Noncognitivists have proposed various alternative theories of meaning for moral...
"Should individuals, especially terminally ill-people in excruciating pain, be able to end their lives? If so, may they hasten their deaths only be refusing medical treatment designed to sustain their lives, or may they take active measures to kill themselves? Can they ask others to assist them? Who can they ask: their spouses? Close friends? Their doctors? Should they expect the law to support their decision?" These are commonly asked question when debating on euthanasia. In this...
Ethics is a system of moral principles which affect how people make decisions and it concerns the philosophical discussion of assumptions about what is right and wrong; good and bad, for individuals and society. [BBC and lecture] Ethical theories present those principles and guidelines which enable us to differentiate right from wrong and help us to determine the correct action that we should take in order to cope with ethical dilemmas. These theories explain and define what it means to act...
Universals are what mind-independent entities have in common, namely their properties or characteristics. These mind-independent entities explain relations of qualitative identity and resemblance among individuals. For example, there are two apples that are "red." The apple shares a property of "redness," that results from sharing a universal. They are separate from individuals in that universals are present in two places at once. There is a question as to whether universals...
This paper will attempt to create a unique student development theory that is transformational in nature, and based on adult learning and maturity. It will use a novel as the basis of the application of this theory. Maturity in this case will be used as it is in developmental psychology to indicate the level at which a person responds to the environment or circumstances in an appropriate and responsible manner. The theory created here also assumes that learning is a lifelong process. Maori...
Smart Choices: A Practical Guide to Making Better Life Decisions is a book that is very true to its title. This book has every day decisions a person might come across, whither it is where I should move, which career should I choose or what is the best decision that fits my life style. Analyzing and thinking about a problem or decision is what this book helps a person to figure out. The book states the consequences of a problem along with the smart decisions to make to insure that the...
Émile Zola's La Bête Humaine is a naturalistic novel; the dramatized determinism through a plot that makes every action consequential. No matter how causal a character's action seems, it becomes the cause of an effect, the stimulus to a response that could produce a significant and unforeseen, and perhaps tragic, outcome. Determinism evokes Zola's comparisons of human being to the mechanistic functions of trains, all subject to inescapable drives that characters experience as...
This paper seeks to affirm that passive euthanasia is morally acceptable. The practice of passive euthanasia is defined here as the assisted suicide of a terminally ill human being who has little to no quality of life. Passive euthanasia can be found morally defendable for two main reasons - the human in question no longer has a reason to live and their death can result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Based on this logic, the following argument seeks to affirm that...
1. According to Daoism the cause of suffering is the human will. That is to say that the cause of suffering is the wanting of that which is unnatural or unneeded. However, the will is not seen as a bad thing in itself. This is best seen in the ideas of Wu and Wuwei. Wu means the assertive use of the will where as Wuwei means the non willful action, or non assertive. Wu is seen as an evil because it is the source of all causal evils and the ultimate cause of all sufferings. For example, war is...
Evaluation of Rousseau's claim that being forced to obey the general will means "being forced to be free" Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28.6.1712, Geneva- 2.7.1778, Kingdom of France) is probably one of the most significant thinkers and philosophers, who have influenced people's behavior and their minds. Not only his ideas and thoughts affected legal, political and social thinking during his life, but also were timeless and many statesmen or politicians got new inspirations from his work....