Edmund Burke, born in 1729 in Ireland, decided to spend almost his whole life -as he was a member of the Parliament for thirty nine years- serving the legislation, the law, liberty, and morality. He wrote once, replying to one of his many correspondents: "I have from my very early youth been conversant in reading and thinking upon the subject of our laws and Constitution, as well as upon those of other times and of other countries…" [] The overwhelming majority of Burkes...
* Ontological: art is an imitation of things in the world. But things in the world are not real things (remember: real things, for Plato, are the Forms); they are copies of the Forms. Unlike philosophy, art does not provide us with any truth; in fact, it draws attention away from the truth insofar as its purpose is to make us pay attention to appearances rather than reality * Epistemological: we attain no knowledge through art because art is false, and artists do not provide us with the logos...
Two great historical figures, Michel De Montaigne and René Descartes, through the use of philosophical approaches have tried to comprehend the issue of doubt and whether it can lead to knowledge. Montaigne, first of all, began by doubting that there is anything certain in knowledge that people have acquired, while Descartes doubted everything that exists in the world around us and this is how his quote "I think, therefore I am" arose. One could define knowledge as...
Primarily, epistemology centers on the understanding of the theory of knowledge and levels to which such knowledge is legitimate. This one of the most crucial areas in philosophy, for it provides a means of understanding the precepts that make knowledge, its sources, organization, methods of verification, and its confines. Through understanding all of this, one is able to distinguish between personal perceptions and the ultimate truth of knowledge. The reality of knowledge depends on its...
The term "technological determinism" is believed to have been coined by American economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen. Taken on its own, determinism is the doctrine that all events occur as a result of a direct, prior cause. Accordingly, at the broadest possible level, technological determinism is the conceptual framework in which social, cultural and historical phenomena are primarily the outcome of technological causes, in particular technological advancement. As with many...
As individuals who are born to the modern world, we usually take many values and structures granted. Liberty, property, rights and duties are so ordinary to us. However today's structures and norms are subjects of discussions throughout the history, especially 'Liberty and General Will'. Most of the big thinkers handled them and propose their views about them. In this paper I will focus on 'Liberty and General Will'. I will start with the description of 'Liberty' and talk about the 'Liberty by...
When describing the virtues of man, David Hume divides them into two catergories: natural and artificial. Many arguments have been presented as to why he felt compelled to do this and in this essay I shall be examining why Hume decided upon these two distinct categories of virtue, and his justification for doing so. When presenting his moral philosophy in 'A Treatise of Human Nature', Hume examines how and why humans act and live as moral beings. He tries to find out the extent of our morality,...
How Aristotle thought about human nature and his views of human nature can be written in one sentence 'Man is by nature a political animal.' He insists that human beings cannot live alone. They should connect each other narrowly in pairs widely in society or in a Polis in order to reproduce or to provide workforces and to survive and satisfy their everyday needs. '…There is in everyone by nature an impulse toward this sort of partnership…' (Aristotle, ) At the first, male and female joined...
What advantages does four-dimensionalism have over three-dimensionalism? What advantages does stage theory have over perdurantism? The metaphysician and persistence through time have been divorced into two distinct groups, three-dimensionalism and four-dimensionalism. The concern of this paper is to focus on the distinctions between what it means to persist, either endure or perdure, how it exists in time and over time, how to explain change and finally when things no longer ceases to exist....
Introduced by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in the first half of the 19th century, the term 'positivism' has lasted until the present day. The term is frequently used in the field of philosophy and social science, but often with many different and sometimes contradictory meanings (Mises 1951: 1) In order to give a distinct answer to the research question of the essay, and to identify the implications of positivism on the conduct of social science, it is imperative to be clear on exactly...