Some people maintain that ethics is not based on reasoning, but is instead on emotions and feelings, or on intuitions. In fact, some maintain that ethics is not a matter of finding truth at all: there are no objectively true ethical principles, and thus there are no true ethical principles to be discovered through reasoning (nor by any other means). Perhaps the first crucial step in critical thinking is the obvious, but also the neglected are not clear on exactly what is at issue. That is, when...
It is a Persian proverb that says, "Doubt is the key to knowledge." If this is so, how does one recognize the attainment and progression of knowledge? The most important aspect of this question is the definition of the word "progress". According to the Random House online dictionary, progress is to grow or develop, as in complexity, scope, or severity; advance. In an area of knowledge such as science, in which knowledge is achieved through tangible evidence and repeated...
Then Jesus said to his disciples, "If anyone wants to come after me, He must deny himself and take up his cross and follow me." Matthew 16:24 From my childhood I was never a problematic child well except for the asthma that would keep my parents up on a number of nights. There are certain stories that my mother tells me about the mischief I used to do as a child but it was all innocent mischief. I grew up with my younger brother, just the two of us. We had a few friends here and...
If mothers would really know what is going on with their babies when they are just born, then many things could be prevented because most of the diseases children and babies present here in Nicaragua, is due to the lack of information, ignorance of treatments and lack of prevention. Through information obtained from doctors, pediatricians and a neonatologist as well as surveys and information acquired from other sources, this essay is designed to serve as a simple guide that every mother could...
Science subjects either Natural Science or Human Science are the possible area of knowledge which follows a pattern in the growth of knowledge with the presence of uncertainty beyond any suspicion. In Natural Science area, yes, I believe presence of doubt is the key to knowledge. For example, in atomic model theory, Bohr state that electrons in atom move in shells around the nucleus which contains protons. But since he invent it, many scientists feel doubt with the law and try to argue and...
This state or life-pattern of men is described as the "State of Nature". Then the state was created through the voluntary agreement of all individuals who constitute the state. Three prominent thinkers known as social contractualists are- Thomas Hobbes-(1588-1679)-belongs to England. John Locke-(1632-1704)-belongs to England. Jean Jacques Rousseau-(1712-1778)-belongs to France. They are known as Social Contractualists as they were the ones who gave a systematic exposition to the...
Those three meditations are from the book Meditations on First Philosophy and published for the first time in Latin in 1641. The original title of the book was Meditationes de prima philosophia, in qua Dei existantia et animae immortalitas demonstratur or Meditations on First Philosophy in which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated. In this paper we are going to present and to explain the different topics of the Meditations I-III by René Descartes. In...
What is the communitarian critique of Kantian liberalism, and how convincing is it? Throughout the last decade "communitarianism" has emerged as a common critique of liberalism. As they challenge the liberal attitude on individualism and human rights, communitarians are resolute in claiming that "we cannot justify political arrangements without reference to common purposes and ends, and that we cannot conceive our personhood without reference to our role as citizens, and as...
The 18th century and the age of the enlightenment was a period in American history which saw a proliferation of many new scientific ideas as well as an increase in religious tolerance. During this time many intellectuals explored new possibilities and interpretations of religion that were sometimes quite contradictory to the Puritanism that had been the standard religious practice since Puritans first settled the New England region. Deism, which was quite radical in contrast to the Puritan...
Newton's laws are empirical laws, deduced from experiments. They were clearly stated for the first time by Sir Isaac Newton, who published them in 1687 in his famous book called "Principia". Newton's laws are adequate for speeds that are low compared with the speed of light. For very fast moving objects, such as atomic particles in an accelerator, relativistic mechanics developed by Albert Einstein is applicable.2.1 Force2.1.1 The Concept of ForceIf you pull on a spring, the spring...