Emotion is a topic that can become very complex and controversial in psychology; philosophers have often found this subject to be the source of heated debate and disagreement. Many psychologists will however agree on the description of emotion. These components can be distinguished by physiological or psychological means and include emotion faces, elicitors, and neural processes. What makes this subject complex is the variety in expressions of emotion as well as the way we are affected by those...
William James is the first American philosopher that demanded that philosophy answer the fundamental questions of empiricism. William James was born on January 11 1842; James was an influential figure in psychology and philosophy. During the nineteenth century in America this was an era of expansion and strength. William James used this idea and captured the essence and expressed himself in such an anti-intellectual way that he became the best-known and influential American philosopher. Through...
This essay will begin from the premise that, far from advocating a collectivist contract of society and sacrificing the individual to such state, Rousseau's Social Contract establishes protective measures for the individual through the conception of the 'general will'. Firstly, an exploration of the content and main features of Rousseau's Social Contract will be undertaken, before a critical evaluation of its relation to the protection of the individual in society will be offered, principally...
Explain and critically asses the cosmological argument (i.e. the contingency argument) for the existence of God. Throughout the ages, various forms of the Cosmological Argument have been formulated in an attempt to establish the origins of the universe. Aristotle is often acclaimed as having developed the first version of this theory. After analysing the notions of causation and motion in the world, he concluded that there must be a 'prime mover' which set things in to motion, and this is God....
Just by reading the first few paragraphs of Garrett Hardin's Lifeboat Ethics: the Case against Helping the Poor, one would immediately get an idea of how selfish interests can be effectively shrouded with logical reasoning. Ethical and moral questions have always hounded humans, particularly when it comes to the treatment of those who are not financially well-off. With Hardin's article, however, the confusion that arises due to an ethical dilemma can be avoided by raw logic that borders on...
I thought I would have a chapter solely devoted to simple, basic arguments that the modern Atheist has when the 'big debate' is about to commence. I get most of these questions by way of researching many debates with Christopher Hitchens and Professor Richard Dawkins and others. Some I took from Atheist 'challenges' on the internet. The responses are mine although probably similar to most atheist's positions, however most of these must be in your repertoire, should any of you have the...
Aristotle was born in 384BC, in a small town called Stageria which was situated in northern Greece. The king at that time was King Amyntas of Macedon and Aristotle's father, Nicomachus, was the kings doctor and physician [4]. Aristotle's mother was called Phaestis. He moved to Athens in 367BC, where he became a student of Plato's academy which was called the Platonic circle. Plato was the student of Socrates. Along with his predecessors, Plato and Socrates, Aristotle is still recognised as one...
The great problem of freedom and determinism is really two problems, one of them metaphysical and empirical in kind, the other ethical and in other ways attitudinal in kind. The first problem is that of whether human choices and actions are causally determined or are in a way free. The second problem is that of the implications of determinism for our moral, personal, and social lives.THE DOCTRINE OF DETERMINISMFirst I would like to return to the "unsurpassable"...
The Judeo-Christian "golden rule"-do to others what you would have them do to you-is one of the most well known ethical codes. Grade school children are taught to use this rule in deciding whether an action they might choose to take is considered moral conduct or not. But why do most people blindly follow this rule without even questioning if it is beneficial or not? Many children would never dare to even think of violating the golden rule, for fear of punishment by their superiors....
"As a consequence of such "rights," IE evaluates the duty of any moral agent in terms of contribution to the growth of the infosphere and any process, action, or event that negatively affects the whole infosphere-not just an informational entity-as an increase in its level of nothingness (or entropy) and hence an instance of evil." (Floridi, 2003; Floridi and Sanders, 1999, 2001) Chapter Review: I describe the emergence of Floridi's Philosophy of Information (PI) and...