In Aristotle's Politics, he successfully argues out that political rule is an alternation between any ruling institution and free persons. It is in this context that he describes the relationship between master and slave, under which he clearly articulates between a natural slave and one bound by law. It is crucial for the reader to rise above those Nicomachean times and view it in the setting that politics strives towards the highest attainable good at the crest of which authority rests which...
Giving great apes full basic human rights implies that they are entitled to the ownership and control of their personal lives and that their rudimentary welfare should be given identical consideration to a human's welfare. In the following paper, I argue that great apes should not be afforded full basic human rights, but that we owe them a moral obligation and a modified set of rights. I draw these conclusions from Carl Cohen and Mary Anne Warren's ethical principles regarding the treatment of...
All our thoughts, emotions, the feelings experienced by us daily, one way or another affect our body. It is known that different intense thoughts and mood changes can change the chemical composition of blood. Negative thoughts lower the efficiency of the organism. When a person is depressed for a long time, bad mood central nervous system begins to send signals to organs in order to decrease an activity. The work of the body begins to inhibit. The irritation, aggression and resentment are...
Hobbes gives the definition of deliberation as "the whole sum of desires, aversions, hopes and fears, continued till the thing be either done or thought impossible" (L, p. 33) and from this short passage in Leviathan, Hobbes further develops and explains the process of deliberation. During this process, "the last appetite or aversion immediately adhering to the action" (L, p. 33) which shows an action is the result of a person's last preference between appetite or aversion,...
Well-conducted research is vitally important to the global community.  Not only does research form the foundation of program development and policies all over the world, but it can also be translated into effective global health programs.  Research draws its power from the fact that it is empirical: rather than merely theorizing about what might be effective or what could work, researchers go out into the field and design studies that give policymakers hard data on which they can base their...
At first, one may be surprised at Socrates' notion that the peaceful and enchanting nature of poetry can have detrimental effects on society. In Plato's Republic, Socrates attacks poetry by asking the essential question of whether or not the pleasure that poetry creates is good for us. Socrates speaks of an old quarrel between philosophy and poetry, which both greatly influence ethics, politics, and society. Socrates criticizes well-known and praised poets, including Homer, and the role of...
Unger solves the Sorites paradox by accepting (2) for the Sorites of decomposition. He denies the first premise of the Sorites of decomposition, thus diffusing the paradox, though by doing this he denies the existence of a single stone. Unger believes that ordinary things are incoherent. Our concept of a stone is 'without application' and so stones must be cast out of our ontology. He develops two sorites-style arguments, one direct and one indirect to show that all ordinary things are...
The principle of torture has been brought back into the forefront of philosophical debate following the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks in New York bringing about the 'War on Terror.' So much so, that torture has been considered as a way of combating problems with suspected criminals and terrorists. The matter of torture has been the centre of legal discussion, often being juxtaposed against the human rights issue. Cases such as Abu Ghraib, the prison in Iraq and the detainees held at...
Davidsons Program: Does a truth definition for a language do everything we would expect a theory of meaning to do? Why or Why not? In this paper, I will examine the theory of meaning posited by Donald Davidson in his 1967 work "Truth and Meaning." I will briefly outline our expectations of a theory of meaning, and define the criteria for an adequate theory of meaning according to Donald Davidson and other philosophers. After explaining Davidson's theory of meaning involving truth...
"The Will to Believe" is an article by William James stating that people will choose what they believe in. The problem in this case is that sometimes logic contradicts what we believe in, which is a major problem in the topic of religion, the major argument for this article. His concepts about what options and hypotheses are set the groundwork for his arguments, while Comparing and critiquing both extremes of faith and logic lead him to develop his own thesis, which states that...