No final consensus has been reached on how to define the concept of 'public policy', nor on how to practice public policies. Numerous philosophers and practitioners have contributed to conceptualizing a shared understanding of public policy and in this essay twenty scientists and politicians will be discussed. Despite centuries of debate on public policies, there are still diverging ideas on both theory and practice. Several philosophers have focused on the outcome of public policies, such as...
As it is known by all, the main source of energy in the olden days was mainly coal and sometime later, also gas. Oil was usually seen as a by-product when wells were actually drilled for salt water which was considered to have ruined the wells. Gradually, this opinion changed and now oil is regarded as a very valuable source of energy in the world. More and more discoveries were made in various areas of the world to extract and consume oil. It wasn�t until after the invention of the...
There are some fundamental characteristics of successful economic development that are common to economies everywhere. There is, however, no universal pattern for achieving these results. While we do have some idea of what has led to successful development in the past, we have very imperfect knowledge about how to achieve such results in the present. Awareness of the current limits to our knowledge is a prerequisite to understanding the problems involved in improving the performance of...
The United States Foreign and Defence Policy towards Central Asia region started after the end of Cold War. It affects the overall international scenario, together with the collapse of the Soviet Union government, Germany's unity after the fall of Berlin Wall brought a new landscape to the world environment. It became more serious after the September 11 occurred, and the focus of the whole world were totally changed. Looking at the overall scenario, the end of Cold War and September 11 created...
The research theme I have chosen is European integration. The preamble of the 1957 Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (also known as the Treaty of Rome), declares to 'lay the foundations of an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe' (H.M.S.O 1973). The idea of an 'ever closer union' in political and economic aspects is now commonly used as the basis of understanding European integration. European integration however is a contentious issue; as the union has expanded,...
According to Gerth and Mills (1948), "the state is a human community that successfully claims monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.'' It can consist of the government or legislature which passes the laws, the bureaucracy or civil service, which implements the governmental decisions, the national security forces, such as the police and army, which enforces the law and protect the state from threats respectively. Some political scientist believes that the...
There are several types of Performance Measures that could be used as a performance measurement indicators. According to Ammons (2008)1, there are four (4) types of them as listed below: This type of measurement quantify how many or how much is the output of an achievement from certain working activity in a single indicator as a raw counting. This measurement can be presented as a number of how many or how much. The output that is come up as the calculation will explain whether certain...
The root of the United States' political system after Abraham Lincoln is based off campaigns, partisanship, and strong separate ideals. The main focus of this essay is to deploy the main fuel of campaigns in the United States Political System. The word campaign originates from its Latin roots Campania, which means field. Campaign is a word used to describe the operations a military unit would undergo to conquer its enemy. A successful campaign becomes the victor of the vanquished. In a...
Secularism in India has always been more of a political than a philosophical phenomenon. Secularism may be one of the basic features of the Preamble but its validity as one of the basic features of the Constitution and its practicability in Indian society is questionable. There is an increasing use of religion in the social construction of ethnic and communal identity which is made the basis for the articulation of common economic interests and political mobilization. There is also the...
The idea of Europe is not a new concept. Origins of this concept can be traced back to the time before people actually began to identify themselves as Europeans, probably to the Holy Roman Empire or even earlier periods of the European history. European identity has become recently one of the most important issues in the European Union. In order to understand the meaning of the idea of a 'common European identity' it is necessary to examine a notion of nationalism and related to it concept of...