Does The State Have A Future Politics
This essay will look at the state's future, and will detail the convincing theories of the state; and will investigate the role of state that how it's affected by globalization. This essay will also specify how and why did the state transformed and developed over time, and ultimately will conclude whether the state have a future? According to Haywood (2007:90)The State is defined as set of institutions that uphold order and deliver social mobility and these institutions are subject to the authority of state. Almost every human activity fall within the state boundaries, this could be from primary education to economic management and from domestic order to external affairs. The view that the purpose of state is protection could be shared by everybody except anarchists. Who believe the protective role of state is not necessary and people can rely on voluntary arrangements( Haywood 2007:91). The treaty of Westphalia signalled the triumph of states and settled borders of many states( Newton 2005:12), on the other hand, the process to form a new state increased in nineteenth century. Some states struggled for the unification of independence and formed political parties to form a new state, such as Italy and Germany. Some new states were also formed from the decolonisation and from the heterogeneous states, such as from the breakup of the Ottoman empire and Austro-Hungarian empire some newly states were formed. The process for forming new modern states were increased and spread from Europe after the Second World War. Many newly states were also formed from the collapsed of Soviet Union. Furthermore, Czechoslovakia was split in two and new states were formed, Czech Republic and Slovakia, Newton(2005:1) argues that the whole world is divided into states. Almost every place on earth belongs to states with exception to the seas and Antarctica, some states have been existed for centuries, such as the Great Britain and United States, however, according to Newton ( 2005:6) some states such as Israel and Palestine, are highly disputed.
It could be viewed that politics is often understood as the study of the state (Haywood 2007:96). The rival theories of the state has often an impact on the ruling class of the society. There always been a strong relations between the state and the civil society, this also reveals that in to some extend most of the theories of the state have norms in common. Pluralist argue that the state power is decentralized and is a neutral body. Pluralist view that the state is widely shared in which economic and governmental institutions are separate and not overlap power. Pluralist also believe the role of state represents institutionalised power and authority, or in other words the state act as umpire in society (Haywood 2007:92). On the other hand, Marxist (Haywood 2007:95) believe that the state is part of superstructure that determined by the economic base. Contemporary Marxists believe that the state is a kind of governmental formation that arises with capitalism. Marxist believe that the state structure is determined by the capitalist mode of production and aims to protect its interests. Marxists view that the economy is the foundation of the society in which the institutions such as legal, political, religious and cultural derive. Liberal feminists who are optimistic about the state role view state's intervention on gender equality and enhancing women role in society, whereas, radical feminists believe that the state is in a complex relationship based on the assumption of male supremacy, According Haywood,(2007:105) radical feminist argue that there are patriarchal biases within the state that is male dominated power.
Primary task of the state is to promote harmony and secure social order in society, and if a state fails to secure social order, this threatens the state's future. According to Durkheim(Gidden 1985:17) the main feature of the state is, its role as an organ of communication with the rest of the society. The role of the state differs on if viewed from different perspectives, but still different theories for the role of state has some common factors. There has always been disagreement about the exact role the state plays, therefore, there is balance between the state and the civil society. The core role of the state is to maintain social order and ensures it provides protection against the external attack. Almost every state provides the minimal apparatus of police force, judicial system, and military of some kind such as, Britain was a minimal state during the early period of industrialisation, on the other hand, the role of the state is to intervene into economic life with a particular aim to promote industrial growth. This is to ensure individuals living in civil society could benefit from the economic developments and often these goals have been achieved through partnership, such as Austria, where close relationship maintained between the state and economic interests, furthermore, western countries as social democratic states emphasise more on the fairness and equality. In some states the social and democratic norms go hand by hand such as Austria and Sweden, whereas, in cases such as Britain, the social democratic values significantly extended after the Second World War, but failed to evolve into developmental state (Haywood 2007:101). There are states which have extended roles in to individuals life. these states control almost every aspect including economy, the state direct controls education, religion and culture, and so. North Korea and USSR could have similarly characteristics.
Globalization has mainly focused on the international economic integration (UNS 2000:1).It has also reached the political, social and cultural aspects of life. Most of the western countries are dealing with all these dimensions in order to have stable and strong future. All these states which believe in strong and stable future have learned that it's in their national interest to share sovereignty with regional and global institutions ( UNS 2000:1 ). Meanwhile, they open their border for the economic integration, and reduce the barriers and exchange information through global institutions and these institutions help to make the process of the globalization easy. Globalization impact heavily on the state ( UNS 2000:5). This could affect the policies, institutions and functions of the state. This has led to change the role of state over time. The state now analyses the needs to be compatible with the globalization and these needs of the states for the globalization are delivered through a government. In order to achieve these goals the government must be in charge and must be power full than any of the communities in the state ( Newton K 2005:7). Liberal states aims to achieve these domestic objectives, therefore, national governments are being forced for collaboration with regional states, in order to achieve national and internationals goals. The increasing global capitalism is understand to be influenced by the globalization or its the success of neo-liberal economic project. In fact, the core purpose behind the globalization is trade, technological innovations, entrepreneurship and the reduction of communication cost.
The question is if the globalization has threatened the state's future? Over last thirty years global interconnectedness has become increased ( Baylis J 2008:16). Globalization has speed up in all dimensions from economy to education, religion and culture. The main issue here is that who set these rules for the globalization? in which states could be affected by these rules and how can the weak states could influence the policy making in the international law which could benefit them, the fact is that some states do not have much leverage as other states in setting the rules and regulations for globalization, in particular for the global institutions. According to Shareman Dennis (2005:1) threats to the national interest and security of the globalizing nations come not from each other. The fact is that those states which has not taken part in the globalization or has fallen behind with low economy and are weak to act on social order are threat for the globalized states. On the other hand, globalization has created prosperity for the states and these states economy has grown up, whereas, those states which failed to participate in globalization have fallen farther behind. These isolated states are weak, unable to provide basic needs and a large scale of corruption is the cultural norm. In these such cases, states fall in to hands of terrorist and become heavens for drug lords such as Afghanistan before September 11-2001.
It is arguable that the changes taking place are serious threat to the future of state, and the changes could be the end to the sovereignty state, however, according to Soresen( 2004:191) the changes taking place are not new, nor these changes are very different from what has happened in the past, though state remains strong and with special powers. This could be argued that the state has lost influence and autonomy in some areas, such as the state are influenced by the decisions made beyond their territorial reach, this resulted to collaborate across borders. Whereas, state has also been strengthened in the areas which were weak in the past, such as the emergence of Welfare State. The fact is that the state has transformed and its responsibilities have changed over time, the major areas in which the state has been transformed are the economy, community, sovereignty and political.The early authoritarian states had different responsibilities from the modern states of today. The state responsibilities included to keep a social order and to compete internationally and raise finance for these two tasks, but after the Second World War; the state focused more on economic and social responsibilities, The social movements against the idea of aristocracy, theocracy and monarchy led to a creation of Liberal State,( Dryzek & Hunold 2002:659). These social movement also helped capitalism to create a social democratic state, in which the state takes primary responsibilities of its citizens for social security, health and education. This also led to emergence of Welfare State. Today, the states are collaborating to form green states for the future. Although according to Dryzek and Hunold (2002:660) there is not a full Green State so far, but Norway is the most Green State in the world.
Ultimately, The functions of the state is to achieve legitimacy for itself and ensuring social harmony for the civil society, this function involves that somehow the state which is organized force - becomes an agent of moral authority. Finally no state can survive if it cannot adequately defend itself, and the dominate power in the economy and society and protect itself from external attack ( Dunleavy & O'Leary 1987:2), however, states have survived so far, even those weak and low economy states, Europe was plagued by war from the fifteenth century to 1815 in which weak states were forced to choose side in order to survive (Dunleavy & O'Leary 1987:10). Therefore, the history reveals and will repeat in which the state has survived, furthermore, State will survive all the contemporary issues including the affects of globalization, and will stay as it is for upcoming generation and the fate of state may then be decided, according to Cerny (1990:113) the future of state lies in the way the upcoming generation will structure it, and described the current position of the state on a crossroad.
Article name: Does The State Have A Future Politics essay, research paper, dissertation