The Analysis Of Political Environment Politics

Essay add: 19-06-2017, 20:14   /   Views: 4

From the analysis of political environment we came to the conclusion that It has the most stable political environment compared to other countries. The other beneficial thing which we encountered was that the government does not tax the residents of It so the income of people over there is tax free which is the most positive point for the growth from the societal and also the it depicts that the government in It is extremely rich and have abundant amount of financial resources which is invested in the infrastructure of the country and also in other sectors such as educational sector technological sector.

It also known as state of It is a sovereign Arab state. It has been ruled absolutely by Al-Thani family since the mid 19th century. Formerly a British protectorate noted for pearl hunting, it became independent in 1971. Since, then it has become one of the region's wealthiest states because of its enormous oil and natural gas revenues.

The most significant positions in It are held by the members of the al Thani family, or close confidants of the al - Thani family in 1992 It built a strong military ties with united states of America and It is now location of U.S. central command's forward headquarters and the combined air operations center. It was observed that earlier rules of It had many internal disputes but from Al-Thani times there has been no dispute so far.

It tops the list world's richest countries by Forbes in 2010.It did not emerge as a separate political entity until the mid 19th century when the British recognized sheikh Mohamed bin Thani. This recognition came in the aftermath of maritime Iti Bahrain war of 1867 - 1868, prior to which the British saw It as a Bahraini dependency of al - Khalifa. In march 1893, at the battle of Wajbah (10 miles west of Doha), Sheikh Jassim defeated the ottomans and forced a treaty that would later form the basis of It emerging as a separate country. As we all know that It is rich in petroleum and oil which is one of the main sources of income earning.

The constitutional development in It graduated from one phase to another, keeping pace with the development of the country and its economic growth. The first provisional constitution was issued in 1970 before independence and it was amended in 1972 after independence, in order to cope with the requirements and responsibilities of the new phase.

Since that time the objectives and features of the state policy and its Gulf, Arab and Islamic affiliations were determined. The State's authorities and apparatus acquired their experience from actually practicing these authorities in the internal and external domains.

Amendments were made on some provisions of the provisional basic statute in regard to the executive authority and hereditary rule so as to conclude the constitutional arrangements in the country. The judiciary act and other basic acts, which were enacted to regulate civil and commercial interactions, were other steps on the way to build up the government apparatus and lay down the foundation for the rule of institutions and the law.

To reach that goal, an Emiri Decree was issued in July 1999 to form a elevated level committee to draft a new, permanent constitution for the country, one of the main provisions of which would be to cope with the achievements of the State of It and to meet the aspirations and hopes of the 21st century.

The constitutional development in It formed from one phase to another, for the development of it and making competitive itself globally with economic growth. The first constitutional has been issued in 1970 before independent and it was necessary in 1972. It was for coping with the requirements and responsibilities of the new phase.

Since that time the objectives and features of the state policy and it's Gulf, Arab and Islamic and willing was determined. The state's authorities and apparatus needed their experience from actually practicing these authorities in the internal and external domains. The Judiciary Acts and other basic acts enacted to regulate civil and commercial interactions that were other steps on the way to build up the Government Apparatus.

After government constitutional, an emir decree was issued in July 1999 to form a elevated level committee to draft a new that was permanent constitutional for the country which is one of the main provisions of which would be to cope with the achievements of the state of It. It becomes to meet the aspirations and hopes of the 21st century.

Thereafter, the prime minister, Sheikh Abdullah Bin Khalifa Al-Thani formed a ministerial committee mandated to study the planning of future economic that was industrial development in the country in the light of current global trends at end of June 1999.

Emir is the head of the constitutional authorities, holding both legislative and executive powers. The Council of ministers assists in implementing the general policies of the state and the Advisory Council gives recommendations and advice on public matters referred to it by the Council of ministers. The emir is the ruler of the state and ruler in It is hereditary within the family of Al-Thani that is power is transferred from father to son. If no son is available in their family then power is transferred to the person whom the Emir chooses within the family of Al-Thani

in accordance with the Emir decision No (3) for 1995 amending some provisions of the amended provisional constitution on hereditary transfer of power. the emir holds both legislative and executive powers with the assistance of council of ministers and the advisory council.

There were changed and constitute some form. The significant provisional basic statute of rule in the country for 1972 allows that. It is a sovereign and independent Arab state, Islam is the official religion of the country and the Islamic law is the principal source of legislation. Democracy is the basis for the structure of government. The official language is Arabic and the Iti people are part of the Arab nation. The state exercises power over all the territories and territorial waters, which fall within its international borders. it has no right to give up sovereignty or withdraw from any part of those territories or waters.

The state is responsible for maintaining the integrity, security and constancy as well as using all its resources to defend it against any act of aggression.

It held a constitutional referendum in 2003, which was overwhelmingly supported. The first municipal elections with men and women voters and candidates were held in 2007 and 2011. The first legislative council's 45 seats are planned for 2013. Suffrage is currently limited to municipal elections and two thirds of the seats in the legislative council, with the voting age number of residents who are prevented from applying for citizenship. The selected municipal Council has no executive powers but may offer advice to the ministers.

It's constitution has passed through transitional stages starting in 1970 when the first provisional structure of governance was enacted. This structure was revised in 1972 after the national independence and amended to address the requirements and responsibilities of the new stage. Thereafter, the features and objectives of the State's policies and affiliations were defined at the local, Arabic and Islamic levels. The government and its organs drew much benefit from the actual performance of authority at the domestic and international levels

The legislative amendments tackled some articles of the basic modified provisional structure pertaining to the executive authority and the articles pertaining to the inheritance of the Emir's post as an integral part of the constitutional situation in the country. In the same manner, the issuance of the judicial authority law and other basic acts that regulate civil and commercial transactions were complementary steps towards the establishment of the State's organs and laying down the foundations of the State of law and institutional governance.

The Iti authorities seem to keep a relatively tight rein freedom of expansion and moves for equality. The Freedom in the World 2010 report by Freedom House lists It as "Not Free" and on a 1-7 scale rates the country a 6 for political rights and 5 for civil liberties. As of 2011, the Democracy Index describes It an "authoritarian regime" with the source of 3.18 out of 10, and ranks 138th out of 167 countries covered.

The citizens of It enjoy equal civil rights and responsibilities without discrimination on grounds of race, origin or religion. Acts cannot be applied retroactively and no sentence may be passed except under the terms of existing law.

A suspect is innocent until is proven guilty and is entitled to a fair trial. The civil liberties guaranteed by the state include the right of residence, freedom of press and publication and private ownership. These rights cannot be circumscribed except where the practice of such rights contravenes the law or the public interest. The basic statute requires all those residing in the state to observe public order and respect public customs and morals. On its part, the state is responsible for providing public jobs for all residents.

Judges are independent and their decisions are taken and implemented in accordance with the law. The proceedings of the courts of law are open to the public unless the court decides of its own accord or at the request of an opposing party to hold them in closed session if that could best serve the interests of public decency or general order. In all cases, sentences are pronounced in public sessions.

Arabic is the official language in the courts of law in It. The court hears the evidence of non-Arabic speaking opposing parties and witnesses through a translator who works under oath and observes all honesty, integrity and sincerity.

The Consultative Assembly has 35 appointed members with only consultative tasks. However, the 2003 Constitution of It calls for a 45 member elected Legislature, which is to be made up of 30 elected representatives and 15 appointed by the Emir. In 2006, Prime Minister Al Thani-then the Deputy PM- announced that elections would be held in 2007. However, only a legislative council to review the subject was created that year.

The actual elections have been postponed three times; most recently in June 2010, when the Emir extended the Consultative Assembly's tenure until 2013.Press freedom has been increased in It and the Iti satellite TV station Al-Jazeera has become one of the most significant broadcasters in the Arab world. Elections in 1999 for a 29-member municipal council were the first in which Iti women were allowed to vote and stand for office.

The constitution which provided for limited democratic reorganizations came into force in 2005 in It. The new basic law provided for a legislature - the Advisory Council - with 30 elected members and 15 members appointed by the emir. The emir said that It will hold its first national legislative elections in 2013.

The population in It is extremely small. Foreigners - including the laborers attracted by a construction boom there - outnumber the natives. Oil money funds with many services being free or heavily subsidized. Possessing around more than 15% of the world's proven gas reserves, It is ambitions to become a global energy giant! It is extremely active on the local and world stage, having interfered in disputes in the Middle East and Africa. It is currently pursuing an Afghan peace deal.

The constitutional development in It graduated from one phase to another, keeping pace with the development of the country and its economic growth. The first provisional constitution was issued in 1970 before the independence which was amended in 1972 after the independence, in order to cope up with the requirements and responsibilities of the new phase.

Since that time the objectives and features of the state policy and its Gulf, Arab and Islamic affiliations were determined. The State's authorities and apparatus acquired their experience from actually practicing these authorities in the internal and external domains.

Amendments were made on some provisions of the provisional basic statute in regard to the executive authority and hereditary rule so as to conclude the constitutional arrangements in the country. The judiciary act and other basic acts, which were enacted to regulate civil and commercial interactions, were other steps on the way to build up the government apparatus and lay down the foundation for the rule of institutions and the law.

To reach that goal, an Emiri Decree was issued in July 1999 to form a high level committee to draft a new, permanent constitution for the country, one of the main provisions of which would be to cope with the achievements of the State of It and to meet the aspirations and hopes of the 21st century. 

Eyeing the opportunities in varied areas of business, India is looking for chances to increase its trade volume with It, in the next five years. A meeting of entrepreneurs was held in the presence of Indian Ambassador Deepa Gopalan Wadhwa. Among others present were local entrepreneur and Padma Shri recipient C K Menon of Behzad Group of Companies.

Formed around 116 years ago, the CII is a frontline organization with a direct membership of more than 8,100 business entities which is spread all over the Asian economy.

While as the trade between It and India was around $882.30mn in 2004, with India importing goods worth $672.90mn, the trade figures reached around $4.17bn in 2009. While the Indian export was worth $674mn to It, It's exports to India was worth $3.498bn in the same year. India's trade with the Arab region was around $113.95 in 2009.

CII deputy director Pantheeradi Haridas, who is also the manager of the current business mission, said in view of the growing opportunities in the GCC states, Indian companies are accelerating their efforts to look for more business opportunities, especially in a quickly growing economy such as It.

"Compared to other places in the region, we are aware that It is recording a much faster economic growth, backed by a progressive government that has development as its key focus. Perhaps few other countries of the region have initiated as many economic reorganizations as It has introduced in the last one decade," said Haridas.

Inquiries held with the mission members revealed that the UAE contributed around 42% of the whole Indian business with the Arab region, with India exporting goods worth more than $24bn to that country in 2009. Indian imports from the UAE were more than $23.8bn in the same year.

After UAE, Saudi Arabia is the second largest local trading partner of India, having around 22% of the South Asian nation's business with the region."In view of the massive developments going on in It, we hope to expand businesses with It considerably in the next few years and trade equations are hence bound for a major change during the period," said Haridas.

Efforts made by India to host a trade conclave with the GCC countries in Mumbai in 2004 has helped India to increase businesses with the region's countries in the past few years, as noted by the CII official. Each of the GCC states has seen a major hike in its spending on various sectors, mostly in infrastructure and utilities, as pointed out by Haridas.

Remembering the visit made by HH the Emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, to India, the CII official said the It delegation that accompanied HH the Emir has made a elaborate study on the increasing opportunities in India during his visit to India. The current delegation, as mobilised by the CII, has as its members entrepreneurs representing areas as turnkey construction and other infrastructure projects, facilities management, polymer, science and technologies, finance, LED based applications etc.

With the Iran-Pakistan-India natural gas pipeline project, a casualty of U.S. opposition and rooted mistrust between New Delhi and Islamabad, India has moved to It to fulfil its growing natural gas requirements over the past decade. Holding the world's third-largest gas reserves after Russia and Iran, It is a natural choice for such a purpose. But after the recent visit of Iti Emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani to India, the two countries are looking to broaden their economic ties beyond the trade in energy. It is set to rise as a strategic investor in India's infrastructure plans, while India is holding stable on its security guarantees to the Persian Gulf emirate.

Beyond depending on nuclear and solar energy, India's climate change mitigation strategy thinks of a major switch from oil to less-carbon-intensive natural gas, especially in the transportation sector. Of the past 10 years, New Delhi envisioned Iran as the key international partner in implementing this strategy. But given the geopolitical issues surrounding Iran's nuclear program and India's security concerns over a route traversing Pakistan, New Delhi is now looking forward to It to fill that role, at least for the short-to-medium term.

Financial Sector

Iti banking sector has managed to escape, direct impact of global subprime fallout, though was not yet unscathed by the aftershocks.

Overall, it was considered the best performing among those in the Gulf Cooperation Council GCC markets in the last quarter of 2008. Nearly all banks posted elevated profits for 2008. However the sector was facing some issues of liquidity by declining customer confidence & a forced reluctance for lending.

In order to strengthen the banks' stand, the It Investment Authority QIA announced early in 2009 that it was ready to take around 10 to20% of stake in any of the interested locally listed banks by the way of capital injection, though this was later on reduced to 5 percent stakes and also an additional 5 percent at the ending of 2009.

The Iti government also announced that in March 2009 it was planning to buy the investment portfolio of the banks hoping that this would encourage them to continue lending. Cautious sector sentiment also has been compounded by the It Central Bank's lending restrictions, which demand a loan-to-deposit ratio of 90 percent. If Elevated level of integration between It's economy and the Gulf region , as well as the wider world will be there then, and also slowdown in business and banking activity will seem inevitable.

Also, the banking sector of It has been doing comparatively well, considering the strife which is experienced in other countries, insiders are confident that activity will return to its previous brisk pace in the second half of '09 as confidence slowly rebuilds around the globe.

Transportation Facilities

As a fast-expanding population and along with that substantial economic growth over the past decade is there, a reliable and extensive transportation network is becoming increasingly necessary within It. Till now the government, the primary transport developer has done well in terms of keeping up with demand for new transportation options.

In 2008 the Public Works Authority (Ashghal), one of the bodies that look out the infrastructure development, had undergone a major reorganization in order to streamline and modernize the authority in preparation for major project expansions across all segments in the near future. Ashghal works in tandem with the Urban Planning and Development Authority (UPDA), the body who had designed the transportation master plan, instituted in March 2006 and running to 2025.

Driving is the primary mode of transport in It; due to this the road network is a major focus of the plan. Project highlights in this segment include the multibillion-dollar Doha Expressway and the It-Bahrain Causeway that will connect It to Bahrain and Saudi Arabia and is considered a milestone in local interconnectivity. Mass-transit options, such as a Doha metro, light-rail structure and also more extensive bus networks, are also under development to ease the road congestion.

In addition, the railway structure is being significantly expanded and could eventually form an integral part of a GCC wide network linking all the Gulf States.

The airport, too, is expanding capacity so that it could keep up with rising visitor numbers. The New Doha International Airport is one of the largest projects in It today and will boast a capacity of 50m passengers upon its completion in 2015.

Finally, port infrastructure is seen as an integral part of It's economic development because it focuses on LNG and industrial exports. A port at Mesaieed is undergoing expansion and will be having capacity to handle around 1m twenty-foot-equivalent units by the year 2020.

While the financial crisis may present challenges to infrastructure development later in 2009, once all projects are up and running It will have one of the most advanced and modern transport infrastructures in the region.

World Bank Rankings for Ease of Doing Business in It

It is ranked 37 out of 181 economies in the World Bank rankings for Ease of Doing Business. Singapore is the top ranked economy in the Ease of Doing Business

It - compared to global good practice economy as well as GCC economies:

It's Ranking in Doing Business 2009Rank

Ease of Doing Business

37

Starting a Business

57

Dealing with Construction Permits 27

Employing Workers

88

Registering Property

54

Getting Credit

131

Protecting Investors

88

Paying Taxes

2

Trading Across Borders 36

Enforcing Contracts

98

Closing a Business

31

It's economic performance is expected to remain strong in 2012, despite difficult global economic conditions. Gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to moderate to 6% in 2012 on the back of government spending on large infrastructure projects and increased production in the manufacturing sector. It recorded 19% GDP growth in 2011, rising to $181.7 billion from approximately $153 Billion in 2010, largely attributable to sustained elevated oil and gas prices and increases in LNG production as decades-long expansion plans reached completion.

From 2006 - 2011, It's nominal GDP growth averaged 25.44%.The main drivers for this growth can be attributed to general increases in production and exports of LNG, oil, petrochemicals and related industries, barring a slight fall of 15.2% between 2009 and 2010.

During the same period (2004-2011), the non-oil and gas sector's compound annual growth rate was 25.7%.In 2011, the oil and gas sector accounted for over 60% of overall GDP, while the non-oil and gas sector accounted for the remainder of 40%. According to It National Bank, the Per Capita GDP in It is expected to rise to $109,000 by 2012.

Commercial ties between the United States and It have been expanding at a rapid pace over the last seven years, with trade volumes growing by more than 446%, from $738 million in 2003 to $4.03 billion in 2011. Over the same period, U.S. exports increased 580% to $2.8 billion, making the United States a major import partner for It, accounting for about 11% of total Iti imports (2011).

FIFA World Cup 2022 and its impact on It

The FIFA World Cup to be held in It is expected to draw about half a million tourists/visitors, almost around 1/3rd of It's current population. Thus The FIFA event is expected of having a significant impact and profit the economy of It.

As a part of the plan, Iti government will spend about more than $40 billion on the projects, when the remaining of the share will be obtained from the government entities like It Petroleum. Thus The construction of 1st phase of a new $10 billion worth airport, which dubbed the New Doha International Airport has already in full swing, that will eventually replace this current airport. The 1st phase of this project is scheduled for opening in late 2012, with the later phases to be rolled out between around 2012 and 2027. Hence Once completed, this new airport will have the capacity of catering to 24 million passengers/year initially which can be expanded in order to handle the 50 million passengers.

Other prominent projects which include $7 billion deep-water seaport and $1 billion crossing which links the new airport with the projects in the north part of Doha.

Also An additional $20 billion would be spent in order to build up and expand roads. However This doesn't include the It-Bahrain bond of Friendship Bridge project which is of the cost of $4 Billion.

According to the "World Investment Report", 2010, which is issued by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), stated that It has succeeded in more than doubling the value of FDI flows in a span of only one year, from $4.1 billion in 2008 to $8.8 billion last year. The credit partly goes to the sustained progress made by the country's energy sector, notably in gas production. The 2022 World Cup event is expected to increase this FDI flow into the country.

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