Using Global Governance To Fight Poverty And Underdevelopment Politics
Global Governance can be defined as the mechanisms of political coordination among states and private agencies that seek to resolve collective problems or realize common or complementary interests in an era of globalization (HALABI, 2004). In that order of ideas, organizations such as INGOs, IGOs and MNE play an important role in Global Governance. Although the importance of the sate is undeniable, since it it's the state the direct actor in charge of the regulation of such maters as Human Rights, development, Fight against poverty, environment among others.
The relevance of NGOs in Global Governance is huge and in part this is due to the connection these ones have with the Global Civil Society concept and the expansion of citizen action beyond the institutional parameters of the sovereign state (TURNER, 1998) that currently gaining more and more playfield in the fight against poverty and other world problematic. This is a complex mix between public opinion and action and their influence in governance.
Global values could be the guide parameter for Global Governance. If there is a global standard of what is considered to be right and desirable at least for the majority, then policies can be designed and implemented through Global Governance to try to meet these parameters. And institutions involved in Global Governance can follow them, creating certain level of direction, coordination and cooperation.
Global Governance seems to be the logical state for International Relations, it represents cooperation among all actors at a global level and when done properly, it should be powerful enough to fight against all international concerns bringing peace, development and welfare. States recognize its importance, but it could not be more evident that Global governance is not currently being preformed at the core of its full capacities and we see this reflected in the alarming numbers in the poverty, underdevelopment and Human Rights violation rates, just to mention a few.
When evaluating the performance of global Governance in terms of confronting all this issues, a question arises, and that is the true meaning that Global Governance has for developed and powerful states, could it be just a disguise for their real interest? If so, this is a very dangerous disguise from which developing countries should be extremely careful and reluctant, because instead of development and welfare Global Governance could bring domination and be the actual cause of their underdevelopment status. Developed states are very aware of the power of Global Governance and the benefits they can obtain from it, this is why is important to evaluate closely the connection between Global Governance and international development and fight against poverty, to truly see the impact the first one has had in the last two.
The number 1,023,982,905 it may look just as any other regular figure, but when we know this is the number of Undernourished people in the world right now (WORLDOMETERS), this takes a whole different significance a pretty alarming one. Another alarming figures are the number of people infected with HIV/AIDS 31,031,261 and the number of deaths cause by HIV/AIDS 667,229, the number of deaths from water related diseases 1,650,047 and the number of people with no access to safe drinking water 1,354,821,824 (WORLDOMETERS). All this figures have something in common and that is the possibility of preventing them with a global cooperation and coordination, in other words with global Governance.
Global values can have a high influence in global governance, if they are globally shared and practiced. They set beliefs and models of conduit that are recognized as desirable. If people recognize themselves as part of a whole global community, then citizens become involved in a global struggle for the wellbeing and not just the wellbeing of the people they share a nationality with but with the wellbeing of all people around the globe. Global Values are closely related to Global governance and can guide its purposes. They are also reflected in the work of citizens independent from governments as it is the case of Nongovernmental Organizations. (SPIJKERS, 2008)
NGOs are key actors in the fight against poverty and underdevelopment. Their power has obtain the capacity of influencing public opinion and moving masses towards humanitarian ends (TEEGEN, DOH, & VACHANI, 2004) and they contribute enormously to resolve problems that governments are unable to solve or have simply overlooked.
The role of the UN in the recent crises generated by the earthquake in Haiti is an example of the tremendous importance of NGOs. In this specific case the government was unable to solve the problems generated by the earthquake and this International institution was in charged not only to help Haiti manage their critical situation with their own resources, but also to direct at a global mobilization towards this end. The UN was not the only NGO involved, actually a group of non Governmental organizations are working in Haiti "A Haiti Fit for Children" has been organized by them and is active working to improve the future of the children and families in Haiti. In cases as this we can see the connection between global governance and International development and fight against poverty, just as Celigny Darius the National Director of SOS Children's Villages Haiti said:
"Haitians, civil society and the international community need to come
together to protect children and families made vulnerable by the earthquake. No
group can do it alone." (Anonymous, 2010).
One of the most powerful attributes of NGOs is their capacity to influence public opinion and to connect people who share the same believes in a global context. This has a high influence in governance; (TURNER, 1998) the fact that all these people come together for a share gold or belief is very relevant to states and gives more resonance to the people's voice. So it can be seem as a way to defend the people's interests even if they differ from the ones of the government.
The empowerment of NGOs dates back to the Thatcher (UK) and Reagan (US) administrations , in which policies to shrink government influence where instituted giving legitimacy to and, establishing a preference for non- state actors and ever since NGOs have gain a tremendous position in Global Governance. (TEEGEN, DOH, & VACHANI, 2004).
But this is a very tricky concession that has positive and difficult variables involved. On one hand is very positive that NGOs are gaining such level of influence and the legitimate power to actually intervene in world problems, but on the other hand NGOs are not strong enough to fight against this problems by themselves, NGOs rely mostly on donations and donations are pretty much impotent to fight global problematic such as world hunger. This is why government is and should always be the direct reasonable in the fight against these problematic (HALABI, 2004).
When we evaluate the current status of all the variables Global Governance has influence on, we can clearly see that this attempt is failing and we can seriously doubt about its current applicability. In a world full of social inequalities, Global Governance should take place to redistribute the economic and natural resources; there should be a lot more actions undertaken specially by powerful states to break the immense gap between developed and developing countries. Instead this gap increases every day, leaving more and more victims as time goes by.
A mechanism as powerful as Global Governance should be able to change global configuration. Developed states and the international organizations that represent these states such as the European Union fully recognize its importance for developing countries as much as for themselves (MORATINOS, 2010). Then the question is why is still Global Governance failing to meets its objectives? Perhaps is because its objectives are not the ones we thought they were? Some argue Global governance might be just an excuse for developed countries to obtain what they need from developing states, without having to fight against these developing countries in case they would revolt and try to change their status by bringing down developed states. (HALABI, 2004), in other words it would just be a disguise for developed states attempt to maintain status quo without even having to fight for it.
International institutions that are under the direct influence of developed states and that represent these attempts of Global Governance such as The International monetary Found (IMF), The World Trade Organization (WTO) and The World Bank are accused of promoting development policies that in the long run won't change the developing states status but condemned them to always be under the shadows of developed states they are also accused of the promotion of unregulated economic globalization that contributes to enlarge the gap between the rich and the poor (MURPHY, 2000).
The situation in Rwanda is pointed out as an example of the harm such policies can inflict; in that case such policies made the country become depending to donations and worsted the situation. If the policies these institutions promote were efficient, there wouldn't be room for cases like this to happen neither would if Global Governance was being implemented with the gold of preventing then to happen.
If these accusations where to be true, then the problem of poverty and underdevelopment is event greater because it will be nourish by developed states and Global Governance will be a tool for nurturing these problems instead of a tool for solving them as the way it should be. There is a need for accurate judgment and for using Global Governance capacity to overcome underdevelopment and poverty. Governments are directly call to do as much as they can but also citizens are in duty to contribute as well, and there is no excuse for not doing do, because the means are there the only thing that is loosing is the truly consciousness and will to help.Bibliografía
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Article name: Using Global Governance To Fight Poverty And Underdevelopment Politics essay, research paper, dissertation