The Undeclared War Taken Place In Iraq Politics
The US and Britain had an undeclared war against Iraq for twelve years, ever since the end of the Gulf Slaughter in 1991. The aim has been the destruction of Iraqi society enabling the US and Britain to gain control of Iraq's huge oil reserves. Due to the attacks of September 11th, 2001, on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, which killed over 3000 people, the Bush was blaming Osama bin Laden and his alleged Al-Qaeda network, and declaring a so-called war on terrorism. Immediately the Pentagon put into effect its already-prepared plans for massive bombing raids against Afghanistan. The main reasons for the US invasion of Iraq were to gain control of Iraq's oilfields, to establish military bases in Iraq from which to dominate the Middle East and to establish control over all countries dependent on oil and to remove the threat to Israel posed by Iraq.
The Iraq War is aÂ military campaignÂ that began on March 20, 2003,Â with theÂ invasion of IraqÂ by aÂ multinational forceÂ led by troops from the United States under the administration of PresidentÂ George W. BushÂ and the United Kingdom under the Prime MinisterÂ Tony Blair. The governments of the United States and the United Kingdom stated thatÂ Iraq wasÂ employingÂ weapons of mass destructionÂ (WMD). In 2002, theÂ United Nations Security CouncilÂ passedÂ Resolution 1441Â which asked Iraq to completely cooperate with UN weapon inspectors to verify that it was not in possession of weapons of mass destruction. TheÂ United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) were given access by Iraq under provisions of the U.N. resolution but found no evidence of weapons of mass destruction.
The Â reasons for the invasion included Iraq's financial support for the families ofÂ PalestinianÂ suicide bombers,Â Iraqi governmentÂ human rightsÂ abuse, and an effort to spread democracyÂ to the country. U.S. congressÂ Iraq War ResolutionÂ cited many factors in justification of military force against Iraq.
The Members of al-Qaeda were known to be in Iraq.
Iraq's noncompliance with the conditions of the 1991 cease fire hindering with weapons inspectors.
Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, and programs to develop such weapons, posed a threat to the national security of the United States and international peace.
Iraq's capability and willingness to use weapons of mass destruction against other nations and its own people.
Iraq's continuing to aid and harbor other international terrorist organizations, including anti-United States terrorist organizations.
The firstÂ Central Intelligence AgencyÂ invasion team entered Iraq on July 10, 2002. The team was composed of members of the CIA'sÂ Special Activities DivisionÂ and members of the U.S. military's eliteÂ Joint Special Operations CommandÂ (JSOC). Together, they persuaded the commanders of several IraqiÂ military divisionsÂ to surrender rather than oppose the invasion. Their efforts organized theÂ KurdishÂ PeshmergaÂ to become the northern front of the invasion and defeatedÂ Ansar al-IslamÂ and theÂ Iraqi armyÂ in the north. The battle against Ansar al-Islam led to the death of a substantial number of militants and the uncovering of a chemical weapons facility at Sargat.
TheÂ 2003 invasion of Iraq, led byÂ U.S. army GeneralÂ Tommy Franks, began under the name "Operation Iraqi Liberation" and "Operation Iraqi Freedom". Approximately forty other governments, the "U.S.-led coalition against Iraq," participated by providing troops, equipment, services, security, and special forces, with 248,000 soldiers from the United States, 45,000 British soldiers, 2,000 Australian soldiers and 194 Polish soldiers from Special ForcesÂ unitÂ GROMÂ sent to Kuwait for the invasion. In the north, they used the largest special operations force. The Iraqi army was quickly overwhelmed in each engagement it faced with U.S. forces.
On April 9 Baghdad fell, ending President Hussein's 24-year rule. Hussein's sons (UdayÂ andÂ Qusay) along with one of his grandsons were all killed and over 300 top leaders were killed or captured. The abrupt fall of Baghdad was accompanied by massive civil disorder, including theÂ lootingÂ of public and government buildings and drastically increased crime. According toÂ the Pentagon, a large amount of weapons were looted, providing a significant source of ammunition for theÂ Iraqi insurgency. In the invasion phase of the war (March 19-April 30), 200 Iraqi combatants were killed along with 7,299Â civilians, primarily by U.S. air and ground forces. Coalition forces reported the death in combat of 139 U.S. military personnelÂ and 33 U.K. military personnel.
After the invasion, despite an exhaustive search led by theÂ Iraq Survey GroupÂ headed by AmericanÂ David Kay involving a more than 1,400 member team, no evidence of Iraqi weapons programs was found. On the contrary, the investigation concluded that Iraq had destroyed all major stockpiles ofÂ weapons of mass destruction and ceased production in 1991 whenÂ sanctionsÂ were imposed.Â The failure to find evidence of Iraqi weapons programs following the invasion led to considerable controversy in theÂ United StatesÂ and worldwide, including claims by critics of the war that the Bush and Blair Administrations deliberately manipulated and misused intelligence to push for an invasion.
Critics such asÂ Democratic National CommitteeÂ ChairmanÂ Howard DeanÂ charged that the Bush and Blair administrations deliberately falsified evidence to build a case for war. These criticisms were strengthened with the 2005 release of the so-calledÂ Downing Street Memo, written in July 2002, in which the former head of British Military Intelligence wrote that "the intelligence and facts were being fixed by the U.S. around the policy" of removing Saddam Hussein from power.
According to Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, were the goals of the invasion were to end the Saddam Hussein government and help Iraq transition to representative self-rule; to find and eliminate weapons of mass destruction and terrorists; to end sanctions and to deliver humanitarian support; and to secure Iraq's oil fields and resources. An invasion of Iraq had been part of the geopolitical strategy of the United States for many years. It was just one element of aÂ strategy designed to gain for the US domination of the world's economic resources.Â
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