Exploring Global Politics And Human Security Politics
In this paper I am going to explore, discuss and argue the topic of human security in the frames of global politics. Human security topic is widely-spoken with the crowds and in media recourses. This is the huge problem for all human society and many countries all over the world. The main goals of this project are to discuss the term human security and prove that it is a viable approach to global politics.
I would like to begin this paper from the quote that will help us to understand the topic of this research paper in better way. Dalai Lama said that "Many of our problems are created by ourselves based on divisions due to ideology, religion, race, economic status, or other factors. The time has come for us to think on a deeper level, on a human level and appreciate and respect our sameness as human beings". (Thakur, 1997) In addition to above stated quotation it is necessary to add that "A culture of peace will be achieved when citizens of the world understand global problems, have the skills to resolve conflicts and struggle for justice non-violently, live by international standards of human rights and equity, appreciate cultural diversity, and respect the Earth and each other. Such learning can only be achieved with systematic education for peace." (Hague Agenda for Peace & Justice for the 21st Century)
Creation of a culture of human rights is a precondition for peace. War and violence will invariably lead to a violation of human rights, but long-lasting and stable peace in addition with security can only be achieved if all human rights will be preserved.
In absolute terms, the twentieth century was the bloodiest and violent period in human history, the number of victims of the wars of the twentieth century was much more than the total number of victims of all wars in previous centuries. The whole world was involved in the First and Second World Wars that turned Europe into the ruins. Other wars were considered regional conflicts, but such character didn't change their essence (such as internal conflicts in Spain, Cyprus, Greece and Ireland). In Europe, the twentieth century ended with the wars in former Yugoslavia and the Caucasus.
The modern world is undergoing changes due to the development of high technology and globalization. All these changes have significantly changed the nature of the conflict, but retained a large number of civilian casualties, including children. Most of the refugees in the world - are children, many of whom are fleeing from armed conflict in their homeland. Moreover, at least half a million boys and girls under age 18 are operated for the war - they are directly involved in military actions, involved in the mining or worked in the rear. Destructive war affects children, wounded their body and soul and destroys their families and social environment.
According to Mansbach & Rafferty, we see that "Until recently, most scholars thought of security as the military protection of state interests. From this perspective, the greatest threat to states was foreign attack. Today, the security problem is viewed much more broadly. The new security agenda also includes human security, or protection against threats to the vital aspects of human lives. It encompasses threats arising from poverty, crime, civil conflicts, the flow of people across state borders, and globalized diseases." (Mansbach & Rafferty, 2007) Thus, we see that in this connection appeared a radically new concept of security - the concept of human security, which recognizes the relationships between violence and various kinds of deprivation. The concept of human security addresses the protection of person and society as a direct threat of physical violence and indirect threats, arising from poverty and other forms of social, economic and political inequality, as well as natural disasters and disease. The country can not be in danger of external threat or internal conflict, but to be in the same time insecure because it can not ensure the rule of law, or because the majority of its population forced to flee their homes because of hunger, they died as a result of disease or does not have the basic necessities for survival.
According to King & Murray, the concept of human security, promote human rights, as it supports the development of systems that ensure the survival, dignity and fundamental rights and freedoms: freedom from the life in poverty and fear, and the right to make decisions for themselves. (King & Murray, 2001-02) This concept uses two main strategies for achieving this result: protecting and providing opportunities for realization of human rights. Protection shields people from the line of danger, but also looking at ways to develop norms, processes and institutions to ensure safety. People receive the opportunity to reach their potential and become full members in decision-making due to the guaranteeing of opportunities for the realization of their human rights. Protection and enforcement capabilities are complementary and necessary measures in most situations.
Newman & Richmond demonstrated the idea of human security and according to him we see the following:
a) "Realists remain focused on traditional military threats, while liberals have long recognized that problems like famine and disease cost more lives than do wars. Constructivists see human security as an evolving and strengthening norm in global politics.
b) Human security still receives less funding than military security. The major states remain reluctant to devote substantial resources to this cause.
c) Many UN agencies are actively involved in the pursuit of human security." (Newman & Richmond, 2001)
In 2003, the UN Special Commission on Human Security published a report "Human security today", devoted to the analysis of the key issues necessary for the achievement and maintenance of human security:
â€¢ Protecting people in violent conflicts, including the proliferation of weapons.
â€¢ Protection and provision of empowerment of people either relocating to improve their economic situation, or forced to flee with an aim to protect themselves from conflicts or serious human rights violations.
â€¢ Protection and provision of facilities for the rights of people in post-conflict situations, including a complex process reconstruction of societies devastated by war.
â€¢ Support for economic security by ensuring a minimum standard of living throughout the world and empowering people to escape poverty.
â€¢ Support for universal access to basic health care, special attention is paid to the fight against global infections and diseases, threats that accompany poverty and health problems caused by violence.
â€¢ Providing opportunities for all people through universal access to basic education. Correlating the need for a general notion of belonging to the human race with the right of people to have own personality and to consign themselves to certain groups.
According to Cogan we found that "The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security released Thailand's 2009 Human Development Report today. The report, entitled 'Human Security, Today and Tomorrow' casts a spotlight on the state of human security in Thailand from multiple perspectives. The analysis in the report covers economic security, political security, environmental security, health security, personal security and food security." (Cogan, 2009)
Thinking about human security as a viable approach to global politics is necessary to emphasize that the era of globalization, provided ample opportunity for individual development and self-improvement, while at the same time it increased the degree of insecurity. This has resulted to the fact that an individual as an object of international security has increased its significance.
Since the early 90's we see increase in the number of civil wars and internal conflicts and also then we observed major casualties in the areas of confrontations, ethnic cleansing in the border areas. All this led to large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons. The spread of pandemic and infectious diseases took away the lives of tens, hundreds and thousands of people.
Globalization of the economy made it more unstable and vulnerable, the threat of staff reduction in connection with the economic crisis, the failure of banks due to an increase in inflation, the threat of terrorism wherever and whenever you like - all those facts gave the people feeling of insecurity.
The idea of human security has become an object of research, both in the academic sphere, and in practical politics. Among the papers on this topic is necessary to note Ken Booth's work with the title "Security and Emancipation". The Report of the UN Development Programme (UNDP) (1994) played an important role in the global politics, because this report for the first time detailed and systematic displayed aspects of human security.
According to the document human security should be considered in five dimensions. The economic dimension received the first place in the list due to the fickleness of workers in places with frequent economic depressions and crises, runaway inflation, low income, and other such trends. The second place was given to the food safety, covering issues in the environmental safety of food, and its deficiency associated with poverty and hunger. High mortality and disease, mainly in third world countries, pandemic diseases such as AIDS, varieties of influenza and other infectious diseases also deserve attention. Degradation of regional and global ecosystems, lack of pure water, global warming, desertification of forests, natural disasters, taking away hundreds of people - all those questions were also included in the list. (Booth, 1991)
People who have unwittingly witnessed the fighting in hot spots, are often victims of events, the protection of women and children, during wartime, and from domestic violence, human trafficking, all of the above justifies the measurement of individual security. Security community is designed to serve the interests of people committed to specific features, it can be representatives of non-traditional social groups, sexual minorities, ethnic or sectarian society, and others. The final component is the political security of the person. Key issues in the competence of this component are protection of the individual from political torture, political repression and other forms of state violence, protection of its citizens by the state.
In addition to measuring human security, the document also shows the global levels of security. If somewhere there was a threat to humanity, it will have resonance in other societies, and therefore a threat to human security should be considered not only the micro-, but also on the macro-level. One of the features and differences of this approach from others is the fact that its authors - are not the scientists and theorists, but a group of economists.
Comparing the last report with the above stated that has a title "Human Security, Today and Tomorrow" we see that "by selecting human security as the theme of the report, UNDP has been able to examine a wide spectrum of issues related to human development. The report draws attention to old risks and threats, such as the degradation of the country's natural resources and the workforce that remains uncovered by a social safety net. It also identifies new risks and threats that have arisen over time. In short, the report covers a wide range of topics and priorities, including old problems that have existed for many years, and new issues that have emerged alongside the significant changes that have occurred in the country's economy, society and position in the world." (United Nations Development Programme, 2001)
Connecting two reports we could say that even more attention put forward their paradigm, whereby the cost of weapons are opposed to economic and social development. To expand the topic and demonstrate that the modern world needs more resources for development than for the arms race, in 1986 the United Nations convened in Paris a conference entitled "Disarmament and Development". Later in 2004, the European Union in Barcelona in its report adopts a human security doctrine for Europe.
According to Thomas & Wilkin we see that "The list of threats to human security is long, but most can be considered under several main categories:
â€¢ Economic security
â€¢ Food security
â€¢ Health security
â€¢ Environmental security
â€¢ Personal security
â€¢ Community security
â€¢ Political security" (Thomas & Wilkin, 1999)
Despite too vague category boundaries of human security, using the above classification, launched by UNDP, I would like to build a list of priority areas of human security with some necessary explanations. In other words, it will be the list of problems or threats, for which this dimension is intended to answer.
First on the list should be called the problem of human development. These include issues of poverty, health and education. The only area that may affect all aspects of human security - is poverty and misery.
The problem of poverty and misery and, in general, the problem of lack of development poses new threats. For example, poverty in third world countries, forcing them increasingly overcome it due to the destruction of environmental resources, because resources are always in the center of war conflicts, which in their turn threaten the peaceful population with mined areas, small arms and small caliber weapon.
Despite the great controversy over strategic weapons, including nuclear, which are regulated by various international agreements, a great danger in the world today are of conventional weapons, spreading uncontrollably across the globe. Scholte stated that every year, hundreds of people have not only killed and injured by small arms and light weapons, but also received psychological trauma. (Scholte, 2000) Easiness of weapon receipt and its availability in areas of conflict often prevents peaceful settlement of a conflict and prevents the return of combatants to civilian life. Over the last decade, approximately 2 million children were killed and 5 million were wounded in conflict with small arms and light weapons, including revolvers, submachine guns, mortars, hand grenades and portable missile launchers.
In the frames of human security it is necessary to pay specific attention on fact that illegal arms transfers is often intertwined with drug trafficking, and sometimes even human trafficking. Due to the formation of an increasingly interconnected world as a consequence of economic globalization and integration processes, it becomes more vulnerable. Free movement of goods and services, as well as free flow of information creates a serious threat to society.
Illegal drug trafficking is one of such problems. Pandemics, dangerous gangs, violence, theft, "dirty" money, the funding of armed conflict, corruption, disintegration of the economy, and the problem of degradation of humanity, all these threats are directly or indirectly related to the problem of drug distribution in the world.
I like one author's words about human security and it is necessary to quote them here for better discussion of the topic. MacLean stated that "In broad terms, human security shifts our focus from traditional territorial security to that of the person. Human security recognizes that an individual's personal protection and preservation comes not just from the safeguarding of the state as a political unit, but also from access to individual welfare and quality of life. But human security does not merely "envelope" matters of individual benefit (such as education, health care, protection from crime, and the like); this is because these matters could be thought of as part of the objectives of sovereign states. Rather, human security also denotes protection from the unstructured violence that often accompanies many aspects of non-territorial security, such as violence emanating from environmental scarcity, or mass migration. Therefore, just as traditional notions of territorial security involve the structured violence manifest in state warfare, human security also attends to the issue of unstructured violence. Human security, in short, involves the security of the individual in their personal surroundings, their community, and in their environment." (MacLean, 2001)
In this part of my paper I would like to say that there are many problems in the frames of human security but this direction has a big future and great perspectives of development. For example, in March 1999 the Government of Japan and the United Nations Secretariat established the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security (UNTFHS).
The fund finances projects carried out by UN agencies, including, in partnership with other organizations, aimed at practical realization of the concept of human security. Promoting collaboration between sectors and agencies is a priority for the fund. In addition, the priority is given to the projects implemented in countries where human security is most severe. For example, it refers to the least developed countries and areas of conflict.
Fund-supported projects should pay particular attention to the needs of women and children, and should be focused on more than one aspect of the following activities:
â€¢ protection of people in conflict situations, and subjected to physical violence;
â€¢ counteraction to discrimination and displacement of people, mainly because of existing inequalities in access to treatment;
â€¢ support and strengthen the capacities of refugees and internally displaced persons, economic and other migrants (socio-economic impact on communities of immigrants and indigenous people should pay special attention);
â€¢ protection and consolidation of the capacity of people living in conflict areas, and areas in transition from peace to war, providing them with humanitarian assistance and support in the development, disarmament, demobilization and restoration of territorial integrity, conflict resolution, promoting peaceful coexistence, etc. (Such activities would involve the prevention of renewed conflict);
â€¢ ensuring the minimum necessary standard of living, including support for the efforts of the community to establish mechanisms to protect people who are experiencing extreme poverty, as well as preventing the sudden economic downturn, and cope with the consequences natural disasters;
â€¢ expansion of services, including health care, covering sections of the population who still do not cover these services properly;
â€¢ expand educational opportunities, especially for girls; promotion of compulsory primary education (as well as assistance Safety and Security propaganda of ethnic, gender and socio-cultural diversity in schools).
Taking everything into consideration I want to underline that there were explored, discussed and explained main questions of human security and its connection with global politics. In the paper were examined not only features of human security, but were also presented future perspectives of its development.
Article name: Exploring Global Politics And Human Security Politics essay, research paper, dissertation