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Overview Background Of Qatars Foreign Policy Politics

Essay add: 9-11-2017, 13:07   /   Views: 12

The Arab Spring has not yet altered the fundamental nature of the regional system, but the balance of power within it is shifting. GCC states Saudi Arabia and Qatar - adopting a more muscular foreign policy. Important doubts, however, remain over the sustainability of this role.

The Arab Spring has pulled EU-GCC relations in contradictory directions. On the one hand, it presents a unique opportunity for increased cooperation, for instance in addressing the Syria crisis and stabilizing the economies of countries like Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Yemen. On the other, the heightened challenge of internal reform within the Gulf has stressed ties with the EU.

The EU recognizes the extent of US influence in the Gulf region. As a result, it is reluctant to advance its own policy prerogatives, often deferring to Washington in times of crisis. European states should work more in concert with the U.S. - possibly through a formal strategic. (Towards A Strategic Partnership)

Qatar foreign policy toward Great Power (Russia-China-France-UK-US)

An agreement was signed between the US government and the Qatar government to mutually collaborate amongst their militaries of Gulf State. After withdrawing the forces from Saudi Arabia, the Americans considered staying at Qatar and monitor the movements of central command and to make their military as the strongest and the most powerful in the Arab league. These military base and camps can either be created for the purpose of putting pressures on different countries of the Arab State. However, the security is offered by the US government themselves in protecting the country against potential threats and danger.

However, Qatar made certain steps that were not liked by the Arab league or the Taliban that were fighting with the US forces and the NATO forces. Qatar was helping the NATO forces in offering them funds and assistance in troops and the country supported the stance of American in fighting a war in Libya. (Astorri)

Media- Aljazeera

The media channel of the Arab countries known as Al-Jazeera is considered to be the famous channel amongst the people around the world because it has changed the concept and the perception of people about the Arab countries. The channel has little history and it has taken over the Arab countries in a flash of time due to its unique phenomenon and the approach. It has forced the foreign countries to change their policies with the Arab countries and has changed the perception of people living within the Arab countries. The reviews of the renowned scholars are ecstatic about the news channel because it has portrayed the lives of a common human being from their perspectives. These reviews are more effective than a book written and published in English. The book that has been written by many scholars provides insights of the programs covered by the channel and it tells about their coverage of the crisis occurring in the Arab countries. The role of the channel is to cover different aspects of stories which are being portrayed upon the countries and to relate it with the impact on Arab viewers. However, the image that has been portrayed by the American media is very different from this particular channel because it also covers the importance of network which is shaping the lives of Arab people and in shaping their ideas for the future generation. It focuses on banking on the history and politics of the Middle East countries. (Ricchiardi)

It was the strength of the Al-Jazeera channel that had played an immense role which resulted in the collapse of Egyptian government. The channel showed the angry crowds and the blood that spilled due to the terror of the government to act against the rise of the youth. The channel also stood against those channels that were run by the government and always portrayed the better side of the country and avoiding showing the inequalities happening around the country. Many journalists resigned with the state run channels because the channels were dishonest with the news they were reporting to the viewers. There was huge amount of conflict between the two channels of the government and the private owned, as the Al-Jazeera channel showed many people dying because of political unrest and government forces attacking people but all the local channels show that the country is quiet and everything is peaceful. They show happy people doing shopping and playing on the ground which provided an impression to the people that Egypt which was not.

The government of Egypt had to target the Al-jazeera channel because it was highlighting the original situation which was occurring in the country. Therefore, the government officials ordered the transmission providers to shut off their satellites in order to prevent Al-Jazeera to portray the exact image of the country. The offices of the channels were also destroyed and their journalists were threatened that they will be killed if they start conspiracy against the government.

Overnight, the channel became very famous around the world and the ratings for the channel surpassed the BBC and CNN which are considered as the top rated channels of the world. The news channel was greatly funded by the people because it delivered their perspectives on the matter of the government. (Zayani)

On March 2, Al Jazeera received a gold plated endorsement from Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she spoke before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee to argue for more funding on the grounds the U. S. was losing the "information war."

"Al Jazeera has been the leader in that they are literally changing people's minds and attitudes. And like it or hate it, it is really effective," Clinton told lawmakers. "In fact, viewership of Al Jazeera is going up in the United States because it's real news." U.S. media, she added, were not keeping up.

Mark Orchard, editor of Al Jazeera English, isn't shy about touting his channel. It beats the competition, he says, "because we have a network bigger than anyone else has ever had by far, and we're lucky to have the resources to do that. Our trajectory is expansive and forward-looking, whereas some other networks unfortunately have seen decades of contraction in foreign news."That reality is not lost on CPJ's Abdel Dayem, who was walking the streets of Tunis with a cell phone in his hand as he speculated about the network's future.

As America and Europe's media remain hamstrung by financial woes, he says, reporting gaps in foreign coverage are continuing to widen. Abdel Dayem predicts Al Jazeera will take over large chunks of that abandoned territory "not just in the Middle East but worldwide.

"There's no doubt about it," he says. "Al Jazeera is the big kid on the block right now."

Education:

Speaking in London, he set out the tactical thinking. When the oil ends, they want to be left with a practicable, advanced economy.

It's a bit like lottery winners who give their children the finest education, so that they'll be capable to fend for themselves in the years to the fore. (Saif)

Doha skyline

Qatar is investing in the education in its approach to prepare for a post-oil prospect

So they're reusing their gas and oil into information - building universities, modifying the school system, improving vocational guidance and setting up a global forum for discovering the most effectual forms of innovation.

"The presence of the oil and gas will not last forever - so focusing on something sustainable is extra important," says Dr Abdulla.

Education in the State of Qatar was traditionally limited to the "orthography of the Arabic language." In 1952 Qatar had one elementary school for boys with 240 pupils and 6 teachers. By 1955, an elementary school for girls (n=50) was established. In 1980-81, schooling increased to 71 schools for boys with 20,588 students and 70 schools for girls with 19,356 students. Qatar established its academic system with 6 years for primary education, 3 for preparatory (Junior High), and 3 for secondary. At present, the university is limited to undergraduate studies. Specialization in science, mathematics, or literature starts by the second year in the secondary education level. The educational system also contains an Institute of Religious Studies and vocational schools (both limited to boys). Most students study academics leading to a university degree. Few students are interested in vocational education, a trend which makes Qatar dependent upon foreign labor. Education is free at all levels and many services are provided free to the students (Qatar has the highest per capita expenditure in education in the world--$1,990). Teacher preparation, student attrition, and grade repetition due to subject failure of the one time final examinations are educational problems (The Female Education in MENA REGION)

Percent of Population Over the Age 15 and Who Are Illiterate, 2000

Number of People Over Age the 15 and Who Are Illiterate (thousands), 2000

Percent of the Population Ages 15 to 24 and Who Are Illiterate, 2000

Number of the People Ages 15 to 24 and Who Are Illiterate (thousands), 2000

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Qatar

17

20

21

57

3

7

1

3

Gross Enrollment Ratio (%)a

Women as a Share of the Uni-

versity Enroll- ment (%)

Public Education as the Share of the Total Govern-

mentExpendi-

ture (%)

Percent of the People Ages 15 and Older and in Labor Forceb

Women as a Percent of Labor Forceb

Total Fertility Ratec

Primary

Secondary

Fe-

male

Male

Fe-

male

Male

Fe-

male

Male

Qatar

104

105

92

86

73

-

35

92

13

3.5

Philanthropy

DOHA, Qatar -The Prime Minister of Qatar has strongly urged that they will provide $3 Billion dollars to Egypt for helping and aiding them with what they lost in war. The war had made so much destruction that it was unable to reconstruct on its own.

Qatar is in "a different category" from America, when it comes to capital flowing into Egypt, says Simon Henderson, who directs the Gulf and Energy procedure plan at the Washington Institute. And America has no method to keep up. "It's not the approach the U.S. system works, and it's an inconvenience," Henderson says. "The U.S. appear slow-witted on this, while the Qataris appear speedy and lively." (Philanthropy)

"The Qataris are getting influence," he adds. "The important question is, what do they desire in return?"

Qatari capital has reached across the globe, spreading deep into the countries like England and France. But for the last two years, questions over its intent have aroused most regularly in the Middle East, as Qatar has pressed to enlarge its authority in a region upended by Arab Spring.

Sheikh Hamas had made arrangements with the Prime Minister of Egypt that the Qatari government shall incept more funds for the issuing of the bonds. There were many disagreements by the Qatar Islamic Bank because they considered as it was a bad deal.

Kandil told the news meeting that Egypt's relationships with Qatar were very well and that media news of tensions were incorrect. The two leaders did not talk about the QInvest contract throughout their appearance. (Reuters)

Qatar gave $100 million in aid or support to Syrians suffering by their country's civil war, the Qatar's state news agency well said on Thursday, the first tranche of at least $900 million promised by Gulf Arab states.

Four million people within Syria require food, shelter and other support, and more than 700,000 are anticipated to have flee to countries close to, the United Nations says. About 70,000 citizens have been killed throughout the two-year-old clash, it says.

However, medical charity, the Medecins Sans Frontieres said the last month that global aid to Syria was not being circulated equally, with government-controlled regions receiving almost all of it, and opposition-held areas getting only a tiny share of aid. (T. Reuters)

Hosting World Cup in 2022

The country has been entrusted of hosting the most important sports event around the world i.e. football World Cup which will be held at the year 2022. This is going to be the first time ever that a Middle East country will be hosting a World Cup event or any other most important event around the globe. The country does not have much history in football and it is very recent that the country has shown interest in sports overall. The officials are amazed that the FIFA has made decisions in their favor in making them the host of the most prestigious event in the globe. (Perry Tristam)

To the amazement of many people, Qatar has never been qualified for the World Cup of football and has never been entered in the event before as a team. This shall be the first time for Qatar to participate in the World Cup football, because the country that hosts the World Cup football automatically qualifies for the participation in the event. Qatar has been playing regularly and performing in many great tournaments such as the Asia Cup, the Gulf cup and many others. (Jazeera)

Qatar is one of the most capable countries in the Gulf and one of the important nations that could handle international events such as the World Cup. The country is liberal which gives them more advantage and therefore most other nations do not have problems visiting the country. The country also had relations with Israel but however since the Gaza event had taken place, the country had boycotted Israel for their actions with Palestine. This was the only Arab country that had managed to make relations with Israel before the event. The country also did not allow Israel to send their football team in their country but has allowed that it will give permissions if the Israeli team qualifies for the world cup. Iran's mullahs across the Gulf, and Saudi Arabia's clerics, under the Qatari thumb over the Arab Peninsula, must be having one of those conniptions that Linda Richman would have been proud of. (Fifa World Cup & its impact on Qatar Economy)

Friday's statement said Qatar had committed "considerable resources" during the bidding process to prove that the cooling equipment would work in the open-air stadiums, fan zones and training grounds and they would press further on with developing the systems in spite of.

"The application of this expertise is not restricted to stadiums or sports sites. It can be practiced in public spaces, so open-air life can be enjoyed all the year round, regardless of climate conditions." (Trenwith)

According to World Investment Report 2010, in turn presented by United Nations Conference on the Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Qatar got successful in more than doubling the worth of FDI flows in one year span, from $4.1 billion in the year 2008 to $8.8 billion in last year. The credit to a degree goes to the continued progress made by the country's energy division, notably in the gas production.

Intra-regional trade would as well get a boost up. A good quality raw materials involved in the building of various projects will be sourced from the neighboring countries. Big regional financial institutions would also advantage by sharing in financing and servicing plethora of the projects. It would be particularly the case as additional and more regional companies participate in the implementation of different projects and look for the local and regional financing. The entire GCC will take part in and collect the rewards of the 2022 Football World Cup.

Qatar's Economy:

Qatar is considered as the smallest country according to its size in the Gulf countries but according to its gas reserves, it is considered as one of the largest countries that have oil and gas reserves. The country has a total of 5% reserves of oil as compared to the world market. The economy of Qatar is very strong because it supplies oil and gas around the world. The revenues that are generated by the country are immense and the poverty level is very low. The country has enormous chances and opportunities of investments in infrastructure due to excess supply of funds from the foreign countries and also from internally. The policy of the country rests upon making infrastructure as strong as possible which makes the country as one of the rapidly growing economies of the world. With its stable and open economy, the govt of Qatar is devoted to the international standards and practices. Qatar is focused on establishing business existence in the global community just to leverage on the globalization basis. Continuous improvements have seen as central to the country's growth and advancement as summarized below: (World Economic Outlook)

Qatar is a stable and pro-business country with obvious vision and direct focus.

Qatar has a strong trade surplus for years with revenues largely driven from the oil and gas exports.

Qatar is a country of creative energy, a leader in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) sector and one of the desirable investment destinations of the world.

Qatar welcomes foreign participation in joint venture to invest in all the different sectors of national economy with 51% Qatari participation.

Qatar's Equity Markets has been amongst the most lively in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), accumulating significant gains since 2003.

The positive growth rate in QE is largely backed by well-built macro-economic fundamentals and good financial performance of the corporate sectors. (Qatar Economic Outlook 2012-2013)

Stable Political System:

Arab Gulf believes that he moves and actions taken by the Qatar government to support the western countries in war against Libya and other Muslim countries have disgraced them around the world. The Arab countries seem to be very unhappy about. Many scholars believe that Qatar made these decisions to secure themselves from any external threats that are made by Taliban or any other group of militants. In the Global report, it has been clearly stated that the Qatar government have many instabilities by which they are protecting themselves. One can be mentioned as the Royal rulers of the country which are very inactive in providing rights to their new generations and their women. The royal family of Qatar is in disarray if their government fails to provide protections to themselves and to their people. However, for certain years, the ruling family has managed to make peace within the country and people for now are satisfied with the performance of their rulers. (Sadiki)

The country has been blessed with extraordinary supplies of oil and gases therefore the growth rates of the country and its exports are high which gives stability to its economy and its political system. The country is considered to be ranked at number two position of receiving the foreign direct investment from foreign countries just after Saudi Arabia in the Middle East. The country has been engaged in the effort of making peace around the world by helping and aiding the people suffered from war including people of Palestine and Libya. Due to stable political system, the country has enable to achieve the highest international event of the world in hosting the football 2022 world cup. The Al-Thani family is the royal family of Qatar that rules the country for many years and they are the sole leaders with which the country is governed. There is a one man leadership approach in the country which is mostly autocratic. However, the country has been very stable to manage peace and provide security to their people which are the only reason why there is no rebel amongst the people of Qatar against their political system. The stability of Qatar is very likely to remain healthy and strong, but for how long? One does not know because the invasion of US army in the country has raised doubts for their people and they have started to feel less freedom. (Khaldun)

The political model of the particular country is very different from the western countries, where the dilemma of weak and strong exists between the different societies of the country. The strongest has to realize that they do not suppress the weaker, and the weaker has to realize that they must work under a society and under the leadership of a stronger society. This shapes a formula of compromise within a state which is likely to be reflected in the country. It is found that there is mutual collaboration amongst the rulers of the country and the royal family which makes it stronger for the country and its political system. The royal family member who are appointed to key posts of the country always seek advice from their other royal family member in creation of anything which is beneficial for the people of Qatar. The tribal and the urban areas of the country are very much developed which proves that much of the work is being carried out by the country officials. The people living in tribal areas supports the royal family for making investments in their area and making it developed. The history of work carried out by the Al-Thani family in every part of the country is extraordinary and is appreciated by many people residents. Therefore, the distribution of power is carefully monitored by the Royal family themselves and they keep in mind of clash of the powers amongst their own officials. (The Report: Qatar 2012)

Qatar has existed as an independent, sovereign state for just over 40 years. Unlike other Gulf neighbors, the country has no significant inland oases - virtually every permanent settlement was coastal and relied on fishing, pearling and trade for its livelihood. During some periods, as much as half of the peninsula's population was engaged in the pearling industry, a ratio far higher than those of other Gulf states.

In the early 20th century, when methods of creating cultured pearls were discovered in Japan, pearl prices declined, ushering in a transformation of Qatar's economy, hastened by the complete collapse of prices in 1929 with the start of the Great Depression. The British Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) had had exclusive claims to oil rights in Qatar since 1916, but the oil concession with APOC was not finalized until 1935, and the discovery of commercial quantities of oil did not occur until 1939. Further delays due to the Second World War meant petroleum development only came into full swing in 1949, with revenues growing more rapidly by the 1950s. In January 1961 Qatar become member of (OPEC) and by 1971 became a fully independent state, maintaining close relations with neighbors and distant foreign powers alike.

The growth of the energy sector gained momentum in the late 1990s and early 2000s, after the 1995 accession of Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani. Throughout the reign of the Emir the state's political course has consistently focused on maintaining stability, promoting human and economic development, and taking on a greater role in the international arena.

OUTLOOK: Through its domestic policies, development initiatives and diplomatic activities, the government is pressing forward with its goal to shape a more knowledgeable and prosperous Qatar. However, there are still a number of challenges that could arise, and striking a balance between encouraging foreign investment and safeguarding national interests is crucial. To that end, the government is reviewing a number of reforms aimed at nurturing private enterprise. Leaders also recognize the challenge of boosting private sector employment among nationals, and are taking steps to provide incentives for workers to pursue these jobs.

Diplomacy:

DOHA Conference:

There was a conference of the Syrian National Council - all members of the Council, 425 people were present there. They welcomed new members of the Council who are representatives of the revolution movement in Syria. It is thought that Syrian rebels and revolutionists are poorly presented in the Council. The squad of the Council was renewed. Now it includes representatives of 24 political groups and 32 revolution committees inside Syria. 150 new members were accepted, and about 40 people were dismissed from the Council due to various reasons: political and organizational. The Council includes women, about 15%, no less than 40 women were present at the conference. Revolution councils and movements take about 30-33% of the current Council. These were conditions of the conference's conduction.

The new charter of the organization was adopted, the new system of elections was discussed, as well as the political activity of the former authorities, plans for the future, a transactional period and so on. The Syrian National Council initiated consolidation of the opposition and establishing of the timely government after getting international support and guarantees.

The conference of the Syrian National Council has great importance. This is the second conference; the first was in Tunisia. Now we have an opportunity to discuss organizational and political aspects. People could speak freely and elect democratically. We have an opportunity to express our view and give our vote freely, which was absent in Syria during 50 years. (Kaza)

Office for the Afghan Taliban:

The idea came to Taliban that they could talk and make negotiations with the American government. Therefore, Taliban representatives visited Doha for a meeting with American officials for ending the war in Afghanistan. The idea also involved making agreements with the current Afghan government of Hamid Karzai

Opening an office overseas offered a great impression to the people around the world because it was considered as an effort to make peace talk with many governments including the government of Qatar to end wars. This was the part of initial agreement with government of Doha and the government of Washington to make peace in Afghanistan.

Taliban raised their voices to clear their misconception of Jihad around the world which has provided negative impression to the people around the world. Taliban emailed the news organization that peace talks are the only way to end this war that is happening around the world. Taliban have a stance that in order to make peace talks, the troops that are ensemble in Afghanistan must be taken out from their country. The reason Taliban offered help to these governments because Taliban have good position in Afghanistan and the Americans are losing the war. The senior members of Taliban and the other groups of militants appreciated the move made by Taliban to offer peace negotiations and to disable armies from killing one another and shedding more blood.

The Taliban leaders have supported the cause of fighting against the NATO by providing the militants with logistics, weaponries, training and soldiers in Afghanistan. The various tribal groups which would later form the Taliban make their hold and authority in the FATA by continuous attacks at the Pakistan military. Since then, the foreign militants that were hiding in the tribal area had killed over 200 tribal elders to strengthen their control. However, many of the analysts believes that the inception of US drone attacks is also a catalyzing factor in the anger of the tribal military to rise for the fight against the Pakistan army.  Qatar have condemned these drone attacks which is also why Taliban fancies to visit Qatar because they believe that it has some sort of support from the country. Several Qatar analysts believed that the US drone attacks have raised the rage amongst the tribesmen because many of the drone attacks have killed more innocent people than it has killed the militants. (Latifi)

The move by Taliban is also appreciated by many representatives of other countries as they consider it is a move for constructing a better planet. As the group of Taliban is black listed around the world, the officials considers it is a best move that Taliban are making peace talks with the American officials and the army.

The Fatah-Hamas Reconciliation:

The emir of Qatar announced to donate 1 million dollar for the people of Palestine to which they consider very helpless. These are mostly the people who lived in Jerusalem and time by time they are being hunted by the Israeli forces. The speech was proposed by the emir in the Arab league summit which was held at Doha.

The emir also considered an idea of collaboration of Hamas and Fatah to end the war in the region and make peace. These are two forces of Palestine which are involved in chaos around the country which has ruined average people lives.

An accord between Fatah and Hamas that bring together Palestinian groups fought along has twisted the peace process. (Jerusalem)

In a significant move Monday in Doha, the Palestinian Authority, President Mahmoud Abbas and the Hamas political leader KhaledMeshaal acknowledged a suggestion of the Emir of Qatar that will make Mr. Abbas the prime minister of an interim government. The accord overcomes a basic difference over who would run the interim power that had split the two factions.

Now, in coordinating the formation of a government of union in the Palestinian & Qatar has closen the gap in its falcate of influence that extends to Tunisia to Syria, and, they have successfully replaced Iran as the external country with the best influence over Hamas.

Conclusion

Looking at an outline of Qatari activity in the area we may conclude that such a vibrant foreign policy, participating in chief issues in Middle East and building broad relations with all the key stake-holders, is in fact the only way out for Qatar from the hazards it faces. Keeping all sides close at the same time and counter-balancing all fundamental players gives Qatar a likelihood to be an important hub within the network of relationships. Qatar tries to reduce the influence from its neighbors by investing in the regional affairs. But the question is: how extensive will Qatar be capable to uphold such a competent foreign policy and maintain the equilibrium among the various sides?

Qatar is now under the radar of all human rights and labor movements and it's causing a lot of attention to the Gulf nation that didn't have in previous events like 2006 Asian Games. Such attention might point out many faults in the sponsorship system that is being opposed by a number of organizations.

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