On January 23rd 2013, the British Prime Minister David Cameron succumbed to Eurosceptic pressure and promised to hold a referendum on British EU-membership, should the Conservative Party win a parliamentary majority in 2015. At the heart of this decision and the changing relationship with the European Union (EU) is the labelling of Britain as an island nation. This label can be seen as an influential factor in the growth of Euroscepticism and certain factors have made this label feel even more...
Kim Jong Il was born in Siberia in 1941, but North Korea says he was born in Mt. Paektu, in 1942 (Kummer 5). He officially appeared on the political stage in 1964 as an official in the Organization and Guidance Department of the Worker's Party Central Committee. In 1974, Kim was officially designated Kim Il Sung's successor. Kim Jong Il completed the control of the Party operation in 1980 when his father, Kim Il Sung, formally designated his son as his successor. In 1982, international...
According to Michael Foley and Bob Edwards, civil society has come to be seen as an essential ingredient in both democratization and the health of established democracies, pointing to empirical trends in Latin America and Eastern Europe where civil society successfully resisted authoritarian regimes by pressing for change "from below". Larry Diamond also takes a positive approach to articulating the democratizing effect of civil society, listing "a spectrum of desirable roles...
Energy resources and especially petroleum lay at the heart of the contemporary conflicts. Modern industrial economy cannot function without this resource. Thus, it is a concern of national security of the US to reduce imports from the regions where the supply is fragile. The United States of America with less than 5 percent of world's population consumes approximately 26 percent of the world's total supply of oil (C.Gautier 2008 p.90; M.Klare 2004 p.11; R.E.Minsk 2002 p.4). The US military is...
The death penalty has been a controversial topic ever since its first use on Captain George Kendall who was accused of being a spy for Spain, in Jamestown Colony of Virginia in1608. Then in the 1800s, the abolitionists took up the causes of capital punishment; but their start ended in failure. It has been estimated that 14,000 Americans have been executed since the inception of the death penalty dating back to colonial times. The sanction of death for the punishment of a murder in the United...
This thesis focuses on the reports produced by the western media during the 1994 Rwanda genocide. The genocide which led to the death of approximately 20% (twenty percent) of the population of Rwanda in about 100 days seemed to have been ignored by the rest of the world. It has been alleged that is a major explanation for the lethargic reaction or non-reaction of the international community to the plight of the victims of the crises was the inadequate coverage provided by the media which failed...
Although many formerly authoritarian regimes in several countries have transitioned to a democratic regime, authoritarian regimes in the Middle East still endure. The democratic uprisings during the Arab spring notwithstanding, it is questionable if this is a prelude to democracy in the Middle East. For example in Libya, the lack of social and governmental cohesion will hamper any transition prospective to democratic rule (Anderson, 2011). Why was the Middle East not swept up in the third wave...
Important theoretical distinctions can be made between different types of minorities. The first one concerns the relationship that such minorities have with the territory and can be divided into two kinds: autochthonous and allochthonous minorities. The former are also called indigenous, historical or territorial minorities; these terms refer to communities whose members have a distinct language or culture compared to the rest of population; very often, they became minorities as a consequence...
China is fast rising as an economic power and its demand for energy is rising fast. This poses another challenge for China. This challenge is the environmental challenge. China's greenhouse gas emissions are also rising at an alarming rate. This, in turn, is increasing pressure from the international community for the Chinese government to curb greenhouse gas emissions. The Chinese government is doing its part regarding climate change but it is also stressing that economic progress is its...
The modus, in which states present themselves in an increasingly market-orientated world of "hypercompetition", has changed. Rising to new challenges, nation-branding, which uses instruments of strategic marketing, has found its place in governments' public-diplomacy efforts. The idea of the praxis of nation-branding is that a country's image resembles a brand and can therefore also be communicated in this manner. Nation-branding seeks to emphasise the strengths of a country, position...