"I personally conveyed messages to (Indian) Prime Minister Vajpayee through every international leader who came to Pakistan, that if Indian troops moved a single step across the international border or Line of Control, they should not expect a conventional war from Pakistan." As long as nuclear weapons remain with some states, others will seek to develop them. Their continued existence poses the risk that someday they could be used. The growing demand for nuclear energy will result in...
Over the past years, global governance and globalization and the relation between the two, has become a much discussed subject. There are various definition of global governance; its role, its nature. Likewise, there are even more definitions regarding globalization. There are several strands of expert which disagree on when the origins are traceable, ranging even thousands of years and, moreover, some differentiate a range of separate fields to identify specifically the nature of globalization...
Federalism is a political concept referring to a form of government in which sovereign functions are constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent units such as states or provinces. It is a system where the governing power is shared between national and state governments thus giving birth to a federation. This article is divided into three parts. The first part examines the meaning and reviews definitions of federalism. Then the Indian system is explored and...
Multinational corporations are a type of Non Governmental Organization, and have became permanent actors in the international sphere with the globalization of the world political economy since World War II. While MNCs' power was growing faster in scope and potential influence, world leaders began not to worry over of who was amassing power, but of the absence of it. In fact, during the Cold War, state failure was rarely addressed as a danger, but in the 1990s failed states began to consume the...
The Political power in India is shared by three vertical units of governments- The Central government, the state government, and the local government. The local government includes the Panchayati Raj Institutions in the villages and the Municipal and Metropolitan Councils in the cities. These are the known as the institution of Local Self Governance, which is democracy at root level and evolve through the process of Decentralisation Process in India. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments...
Energy and its effects on the Environment: It is very important that our next president makes a very big decision towards our countries energy sources. Either he will need to lead us to finding new places to get the same resources we have always used for energy; or he will need to lead the charge to find new things to use for energy. Also they will push for an alternative source of fuel, and higher minimum fuel economy. Senator Obama is pushing use a small portion of our reserves to slash the...
The topic of same sex marriage was a clear choice when I started this class. I am a lesbian and I have been very sure about it throughout my life. So when I chose this topic not only was it close to my heart, but I wanted to learn why so many people felt so strongly against what I had been brought up to believe in; if you love someone and want to spend your life together it is your right to marry. These days, in USA there is a debate that same sex marriages should be legally allowed as the...
The concept of border is very often understood as sovereignty, a territorial competence of a State; indeed, we do not think about the concept of state border, but about the different ways of crossing it in a licit or illicit way. In a context in which the EU domestic physical border devaluation goes with a foreign border self-protection faced by international migrations, the importance of border areas is constantly increasing. Today, the apparent periphery of the EU, its outer fringes in the...
Explain and discuss how constructivism in IR attempts to re-shape discourses on security away from materialistic conceptions of power politics and towards a conception that takes account of power of ideas. Since the end of the Cold War, security studies in international relations have witnessed an overwhelming emergence of new academic literature reflecting the changes in international political environment. Concept of global security has evolved throughout the history going back as far as...
Starting from Rio, the international politics of climate change has gone through cheerful Kyoto, promising Bali, disappointing Copenhagen and hopeful Cancun at the end of 2010. This long and intricate journey has demonstrated to the world how tough it is and will be to reach an international agreement that aims to tackle a common threat to human beings. It has also shown various possibilities in the international arena, including cooperation, conflict, competition, compliances, concessions,...