India - Pakistan relationship has been marred with conflict ever since their independence and both the nations have been involved in three major wars till date in1947-48, 1965 and 1971. In 1998, both countries conducted nuclear tests to enter the nuclear powered nations club. This led a few number of experts to profess that the nuclear deterrence would lead to stabilization of conflict in the sub continent and result in establishment of peace. This kind of deterrence was witnessed by the...
The premise of the decision-making approach to foreign policy and interna­tional relations "assumes that leaders matter in the explanation of foreign policy decisions by acting on their definitions of the situation in the domain of world politics". The decisions of individuals aggregate into the behavior of groups, coalitions, and states. Individual-level decisions are more likely when leaders have an inordinate amount of power within a state. Powerful leaders typically do not need...
Try Again, Fail Again, Fail Better? The essay suggests an alternative basis for engagement. Christopher Cramer and Jonathan Goodhand focus on three factors which central to their analytical and empirical framework the state, the relationship of material interests, and violence as well they discuss the history of violence. They argued that policy towards Afghanistan couldn't treat the country as though it were in and isolation ward. It is clearly which Afghanistan part of a regional and tribal...
The following is a critique of the article "The OAS and the Summit of the Americas: Coexistence, or Integration of Forces for Mulitlaterism?" by Robin L. Rosenberg. The author is a Senior Research Associate at the University of Miami and was the former Deputy Director of Dante B. Fascell North-South Center. [] Thus, she is qualified to write on the issue. It is evident from her approximately 33 sources that the topic was well researched. She used many primary documents which...
In 1754 Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote his "Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men". This essay was in response to a question posed for a prize competition by the Academy of Dijon. The question posed was: "What is the origin of inequality among men, and is it authorized by natural law?" Rousseau found the terms of the inquiry restraining; he reasoned that, to be considered a law it has to be agreed upon rationally and to be natural it must "speak with...
Article 1 Section 8 of the United States Constitution states that, "The Congress shall have power to have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, imposts and excises to pay the Debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all Duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States." This article was however a area of contention during the shaping of the Constitution. However, there were various views by many people. Some of...
Introduction Acts of political violence have occurred throughout history, often demonstrative of people wishing to make a statement in order to allow change to occur i.e. politically. IRA attacks in Ireland, bomb attacks in Mumbai in 2008, and political violence in Zimbabwe in 2009 are simply a few of these which have been covered a great deal by the media. More recently, such acts have taken a different sort of route whereby now the term 'political violence' is often associated with the...
Traditional Marxist theory promulgates that the natural progression of the social order includes feudalism, capitalism, and then communism. Orthodox Marxists assumed that Russia would have to experience capitalism before a social revolution was possible, where education and the development of industries would occur. However, Lenin believed that the situation in Russia was so bad that it could not survive through the transition to capitalism and then to communism. In his pamphlet, What is to...
The definition of Jury nullification is when a jury reaches a verdict of Not Guilty regarding the fact that the defendant is guilty of the crime that he or she has committed. The jury cancels out a law that it thinks is false fully applied to the defendant in which they are in charge of choosing their fate. There are two issues involving jury nullification one is that the judges do not tell the jury that they have the power to nullify laws due to the fact that they think it will lead to...
Accountability in pubic administration is very important aspect to be taken care in every country. The integrity, transparency and accountability are basic principles of public administration and governments must have a check and balance methods to check their bureaucracy for their integrity and honesty. These principles must be adopted and exercised in the country as well as in public administration. The accountability must be done in administration for having transparent and integral...