Analysis Of The Disposal Of Construction Waste

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The Construction/demolition industries generate about 35% of the industrial waste in the world, C&D Waste Management in Ireland is coming under increasing pressure as landfill void space is decreasing and waste management costs are rising steeply. (FAS 2002)Construction and demolition waste or remaining building materials was typically co-disposed with other solid wastes until the mid twentieth century. Recycling of this waste was conceived of as a response to the scarce supply of building materials and the cost of disposal.Building and infrastructure throughout the country had reached record levels over the years 2004 - 2008, never before did the country experience a period of prosperity and purposeful activity within the industry.

However Ireland's economic success over the past years coincided with a substantial rise in waste produced in the construction sector, escalating from 1.3 million tonnes in 1995 (EPA 1996) to 3 million tonnes in 2002 (EPA 2003) to a record high of 16.2 million tonnes in 2006 (EPA 2007), although in 2008, 13.5 million tonnes where collected, this was a 24% drop from the record high experienced in 2006 due to current the construction sector downfall (EPA 2008), C&D Waste management still is an essential part in this industry.Waste management has totally transformed over the past 15 years from 90% reliance on land fill to a fully integrated approach. Strict measures have been adopted by the Irish government in order to comply to the regulations set down by the European Union.The purpose of C&D Waste management plan is to ensure that all waste arising from the -development, will be managed and disposed of in a way that complies with the provisions of the Waste Management Acts 1996 to 2008 and associated regulations,A key objective of this Plan is to ensure appropriate environmental controls and procedures are implemented during construction or demolition activities, to avoid or minimise potential adverse impacts associated with waste generation, handling or disposal.

To achieve this objective, all companies should adhere to the specifications of the Waste Management Hierarchy (WMH) and the Government Policy Documents.In 2008 data was submitted from the waste collection permit (WCP) holders, in their annual environmental reports (AERs) to the local authorities, The EPA compiled the data showing of the 34 local authorities to estimate total C&D waste collected nationally. 3,637 WCP holders where authorised to collect waste in 2008, of whom 2,432 submitted an AER to the local authorities, representing a 67% reporting rate. Based on this data collected it is estimated that 13.5 million tonnes of waste was collected in Ireland in 2008. The bulk of this waste comprised of soil and stones (10.5 million tonnes).

The remaining 3 million tonnes of C&D waste collected consisted of material such as rubble, metals, timber, plastic, glass and mixed C&D waste.Table 1.1 shows the Recovery rate of 79% of soil and stones from the C&D Waste sector compared to a recovery rate of 62% of other C&D Waste materials in 2008. (EPA 2008) (Local survey authority survey, 2008)Table 1.1: Soil and Stones Recovery 2008Table 1.2: Other C&D Waste Recovery 2008Table 22: Collection and management of other construction and demolition waste, 200870(Source: Local authority survey, landfill survey and recovery organisations survey)With this massive increase in waste generated from the industry the government had to implement a policy on reducing waste produced and eliminating illegal disposal in unauthorised sites around the country.The Building Research Establishment (BRE) has defined building waste as "the difference between materials ordered and those placed on building projects" whereas Hong Kong Polytechnic have defined construction waste as "the by-product generated and removed from construction, renovation and demolition workplaces or sites of building or civil engineering structures" however to the contractor and client waste is simply a loss of profit.Acknowledging the extent of the problemClassifications of Construction and Demolition Wastes,Construction and demolition waste can cover a wide range of materials, which are generated on different types of sites. It is accepted within the industry that there are three main categories under which it can be classified:Construction Waste: all new construction projects will generate certain volumes of waste, in preparation of tender documents a percentage allowance is inserted for unavoidable waste, however rarely does the actual amount generated bare any reflection on these estimations.

Through the use of appropriate waste management procedures, the amount of waste produced on new building projects can be reduced considerably,Demolition Waste: Waste will be inevitable where demolition occurs irrespective whether or not another structure is to be erected to replace the existing one. However through proper planning and waste management much of the waste can be recycled and reused on site where required or put to alternative use, thus reducing the volumes of waste deposed of in landfills.Renovation Waste: in the case of renovation projects there will be an element of both demolition and construction waste.

Reducing the amount of waste disposed of landfills can be achieved by using the salvaged goods on site or alternatively selling such materials for use on other developments.Types of Materials,Waste materials which arise in the construction and demolition industry can be categorised into the following components:SoilsExcavations for earth works can produce large quantities of natural materials: topsoil, clay, sand, gravel and rock. The nature of the material underlying any topsoil present will vary from area to area and is dependent upon the underlying geology.The term soil is used here in its engineering sense (i.e. it is made up of discrete particles and is generally unconsolidated, deformable natural material).

On construction sites where a significant amount of topsoil is present this will be stockpiled for reuse at the end of the work or removed from site for reuse elsewhereMade GroundExcavation of fills and made ground make up a significant proportion of arisings from some demolition sites, and construction sites where the land has previously been developed. This waste is generally very variable and may contain a significant amount of recyclable material.

However, made ground may also contain significant levels of contaminants, some of which may be hazardous.ConcreteConcrete has been put into extensive use in building from the turn of the century and is one of the most common components of demolition waste, generally concrete appears in two forms:reinforced concrete in structural buildings, such as columns and suspended floor slabs,and mass unreinforced concrete in roadways, foundations and building structures,MasonryBrickwork is a material commonly used in structures all over the world; excess quantities can arise during building structures while large quantities arise during demolition. Some of this material is disposed to landfill, the majority of this is put to use on other construction sites for capping or other purposes,StoneStone can arise from construction sites where the excavation of foundations require to be dug through the stone, this stone can be valuable as fill on site,Metals/SteelMetal/Steel is produced at large quantities both on construction and demolition sites, generally in a concrete structure the main amount of steel used would be in the reinforced bars incorporated into the concrete columns and beams, excess amount of this rebar is accounted for from the initial laying of foundations and shuttered walls,TimberTimber is used widely for roof, floors, partition walls, pallets and external walls and fittings, wastage of timber is usually accounted due to over sized orders or surplus, poor management of off cuts and spoilt or damaged timber, timber used in construction is often treated to prevent rot or woodworm, therefore this timber is classified as hazardous and extreme caution has to be considered when disposal or reuse of the material is required from demolition sites.Glass,Glass such as windows of building to be demolishedVolumes of C&D waste produced in IrelandIn 1998 the national waste database report estimated that 2.7 million tonnes of C&D waste were produced that yearSWMPSite waste management plans are legal requirements for any site which exceeds £300,000 in the UK and EUR400, 000 in Ireland,Company's must declare what type of waste will be produced, how much they will produce and how they will recycle or reuse it, the implementation of a SWMP is to reduce illegal dumping off rubbish, and requiring companies to forecast and measure there construction waste.Waste is not only an environmental and sustainability issue: it is also inefficient in business terms.

By having to pay to dispose of the waste from materials bought, construction companies spend approximately 5% of their profit on waste removal, (building engineer march 2008)Concrete RecyclingConcrete that was once part of buildings or excess material from building sites which may have different types of mixtures of materials along with the concrete, the main type of mixed material would be cladding materials, plastics, hardboard, wood, soil/dirt, roof covering, reinforced steel and various components that where once attached to the concrete element for a purpose,A demolition site would amount to an extremely large quantity of concrete rubble which would be transferred to a recycling plant.Plants for production of recycled aggregates are not much different from plants for the production of crushed aggregate from natural sources; they incorporate various types of crushers, screens, transfer equipment and devices for the removal of foreign matter.The most common method of recycling is one of crushing the debris to produce a granular product of even particle size, the degree of reprocessing carried out after this is determined by the level of contaminated of the initial material, and the application for which the recycled material will be used such as:General Bulk BackfillBase or fill in drainage projectsSub-base on surface material in road construction orNew concrete manufacture.The process involved in the recycling of concrete from the time the material enters the plant, until it is classified under the British standard guide 6543 as safe to use for the purpose of road construction, buildings and other civil engineering purposes is as follows:The following process is aimed at a aggregate distribution size of 40mm:Selective demolition to reduce individual fragments of broken concrete to a maximum of 0.4 - 0.7mSeparate storage of concrete, brick, rubble, and mixed C&D concrete which is heavily contaminated with wood , iron, plastic, gypsum and other contaminants,Manual or mechanical pre-separation (removing large pieces of wood, iron, paper plastics, etc.)Primary screening (Removal of all material <10mm such as soil, gypsum, etc.)Primary CrushingMagnetic Separation (Removal of Reinforcement steel and all ferrous matter)Secondary screeningManual or mechanical removal of remaining contaminants (removing of lightweight matter such as plastics, paper and wood)Secondary CrushingWashing, screening, or air shifting (removal of remaining contaminants such as plastics, paper, wood and gypsum) at this point it is up to the operator as to what material is sent back to primary screening if he feels the aggregate is not adequate.Finished screening into size according to customers wishes.(Hanson 1996, p3 - 17)Glass RecyclingGlass is an ideal product for recycling. It can be melted and reformed without any loss of quality, an example being several pieces of the same glass weighing 600grams, can be melted and reformed into one 600gram square piece of glass with no waste or by products generated.C&D glass can vary in their applications on site with the main proportion of recyclable glass coming from demolition sites, in the form of fibreglass which was once used for insulation in ceiling joists, and stud partition walls, and glass from old windows known as flat glass.

Smaller quantities of glass occur from domestic glass (for oven and kitchenware) and special glass such as light bulbs, medical and scientific glass.Glass recycling saves about 50% of the energy required to produce a virgin glass. These savings come from the slightly lower temperatures required to melt down which equates to an energy saving of around 10%, and cuts out the energy required to source and transport raw materials. (Siegle. 2006 p66)The recycling process has a serious problem in the production line, the problem occurs when colours are mixed they can cause contamination. Most glass comes in amber, clear or green.

Each colour must be recycled separately and free from all other debris, which can accumulate from transportation from the construction or demolition site to the plant, or the quality and colour integrity of the final product will not be maintained due to its fragile nature.Due to the complex nature of the contaminants when colours are mixed, it can become very difficult to separate broken glass. This is where a good management system can maximise the amount of glass to be recycled from the company,The mixed colours of glass used to be disposed to landfill, but in recent year's alternative uses for the mixed glass have been found, some of these uses are:Powered Glass which can be used as a 'fluxing agent' for brick and tile manufacture.'Glass grit' can be used for grit blastingGlass can be ground down into processed sand, which can be used as sports turf or as sand replacement in concrete and cement production.It can be used as aggregate in road paving a material known as Glasphalt andIt can be incorporated onto the fibreglass manufacturing process.The recycling process of glass follows a much organised layout of events as follows:Glass delivered to plant and sorted into containers, upon examination to find ant mixture of glass colours,According to the glass colour it is sent into a specified direction, for example clear glass is transported on the conveyer belt into the recycling area for clear glass treatment,Large chunks of plastic and ceramics are removed if required to be,The glass is then crushed and screened to remove more large contaminants,A magnet removes bits of metals and all ferrous matter,The glass is screened for a second timeA laser beam is passed through the glass to detect any further contaminants in the glass,The glass is transported away to the factories, which make their own products out of the recycled glass,The glass is melted down with raw materials in a furnaceThe final stage is the moulding of glass into either new windows, doors, bottles, bulbs and other uses.Waste Management PlanConstruction and demolition projects seeking planning permission are to prepare a waste management plan taking into consideration the more effective options to be explored before resorting to landfill.

The plan should focus on the material surplus/waste that are likely to be generated on-site and the manner through which arrangements for the re-use, minimisation, recycling and management of this waste can be implemented. The plan has two main points: to improve the materials resource efficiency, and reducing illegal dumping, even though it is law for any company undergoing site works in excess of €400,000 in the Republic of Ireland unfortunately dumping occurs, this is a key reason for the control of all C&D Waste from every site in order to keep track of the destination of its waste.makes an assessment of each operation involved and should generally include the following:Description of the projectThis section details the nature and purpose of the project and provides a breakdown of the proposed manner through which the works are to be executed. The particulars of the project should be summarised within the standard form (SF1) for submission to the EPA.

An estimate of the type and quality of waste liable to arise during the course of the project should also be provided. A short description of the provisions to deal with all major categories of waste arising should also be identified such as: excavated material, hazardous materials, concrete/brick, wood and other arising. Special attention should be paid to hazardous waste, and the manner in which they will be removed, handled, sorted, transported and treated.Chapter 2Measures taken By Europe Union and Irish Government to address the C&D Waste problemLegislationThe first time the Government in Ireland took steps to introduce a legislative framework for C&D waste management was in 1989 through the publication of the initial Environmental Action Plan.

This plan suggested the investment of £1million in order to bring about a cultured change and establish legislations to support sustainable waste management practices.Since the establishment of the environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1993 there have been numerous influences in the C&D Waste sector aimed at increasing the quality of waste being recycled and restricting the type of waste which can be land filledSince the establishment of the EPA, legislations that have being amended in relation to C&D Waste include the following:Waste Management Act, 1996, 2001 & 2002Imposes basic obligation to prevent or minimise production of waste and introduce the principle of producer responsibilityProvides a framework for the application of higher standards in response to EU and national waste management requirementsPlaces onus on the local authorities for waste management planningAllows for the introduction of environmental levies, i.e. plastic bags and landfill tax and creation of Environmental Fund (Irish Statute book, 2005)Litter Pollution Acts, 1997 & 2001, Litter Pollution Regulations 1999No person shall deposit any substance or object so as to create litter in a public placeIt is an offence to load, transport or handle or carry on a business, trade or activity in a manner that creates litter in a public place (FAS 2002 p9) (Irish Statute book, 2005)Planning and Development Act, 2000The local authority may put conditions on planning permission, which requires C&D Waste to be recovered or disposed of in a specific manner (FAS 2002 p9) (Irish Statute book, 2005)Environmental Protection agency Act, 1992, 2002Act empowering the EPA, setting guidelines for the agency set up and outline of powers and functions of the agency (FAS 2002 p9) (Irish Statute book, 2005)Derelict Sites Act, 1990General duty of owner and occupier of land to take all reasonable steps to ensure that the land does not become or does not continue to be a Derelict SiteDerelict sit may be subject to a levy payable to the local authority (FAS 2002 p9) (Irish Statute book, 2005)Waste Management (Landfill Levy) Regulations 2002The landfill levy came into force on 1st June 2002 at a initial rate of €15 per tonne, with annual increases of €5 per tonne, it applies to wastes delivered for disposal at landfill sites, including C&D waste, but with limited exemptions for land reclamation activities and wastes used for landfill site engineering works, street cleaning wastes, dredging material etc. (FAS 2002 p10) (Irish Statute book, 2005)C&D waste which is used for landfill site engineering restoration or remediation purposes, is exempt from the levy when it is non hazardous, comprising of concrete, bricks tiles, road planning or other similar materials of a particle size of less than 150mm (FAS 2002 p10) (Irish Statute book, 2005)The deposition in a quarry of natural material arising from the excavation of the quarry is exempt, where such material is in a chemically unaltered state, (FAS 2002 p10) (Irish Statute book, 2005)Regional and National Waste Management LegislationWaste management is a heavily regulated activity and one that the European Union regards as extremely important. Waste regulation in Ireland has historically been dealt with as a health issue, but as awareness of the environmental impact of increased waste raisings and disposal has grown, more complex legislation has emerged.

The Irish government has enacted a number of significant pieces of legislation to ensure compliance with European directives. Key legislation relevant to waste management includes, among others:The Framework Directive on Waste i.e. Directive 75/442/EEC as amended by Directive 91/156/EECThe Framework Directive on Hazardous Waste i.e.

Council Directive 91/689EECEuropean Union Shipment Regulation 1013/2006/EECCouncil Directive 1999/21/EC on the landfill of wasteWaste Management Acts 1996 to 2008 and associated RegulationsEnvironmental Protection Agency Act, 1992Local Government ( Water Pollution) 1977 to 2003 Acts and associated RegulationsLitter Pollution Act 1997Protection of the Environment Act 2003, and associated RegulationsEuropean Waste Management Policy'sThe European Union have a number of bodies which are involved in the process of implementing, monitoring and further developing the legal system of the European Union. There are four main institutions that govern the European Union; these are, The European Commission, The Council of the European Union, The European Parliament and the European Court of Justice.The legislation that controls the decisions made in accordance with any type of construction or demolition waste management, have to be passed through a series of negotiations between the European Parliament, European Commission and The council of ministers, where it is the council of ministers that makes the changes regarding EU Legislation, regulations and directives.Since 1973 the EU have developed six Environmental Action Programmes, the latest action programme emphasised on sustainable management of natural resources and waste.

The program which was launched in 2001 has a time frame between the years 2001 - 2010 where it identifies and sets targets of reducing the quantity of waste going to disposal in landfill by 20% by 2010 and by 50% by 2050.The programme has five main targets:Development a strategy for the sustainable management of natural resources by laying down priorities and reducing consumptionThe taxation of natural resource useEstablishing a strategy for the recycling of wasteThe improvement of existing waste management schemesInvestment into waste prevention and integration of waste prevention into other EU policies and strategies. (Williams 2005, p7)The policy of the EU on sustainable waste management include, the use of regulatory measures, market based instruments, waste management planning and statistical data policy instruments, all of which are available to the EU or Member States of the EU.Regulatory measures are based on the EU legislation and regulatory provisions covering the management of waste. As seen in section AAA the Irish government has sets of directives that comply with EU Directives,Market based instruments of the costs of various waste management options should decrease considerably, making those responsible for the creation of the waste to pay the highest rates, while those that take the route of reduce-reuse-recycle pay less as they being Environmentally friendly in operation,Waste management planning ensures adequate provision of waste management facilities, such as recycling, recovery, landfill, composting and incineration, leading to an integrated waste management structure.

The treatment should be carried out as close to the point of waste production in order to minimise cost of transportation,Statistical data policy aims to meet the EU and Member state Waste Management policy, here the policy releys on accurate statically data in waste management, to enable suitable waste strategies to be determined and waste targets to be set, (Williams 2005 p11-14)European Waste Management LegislationThe waste management legislation is required to control a waste related activity, the waste management legalisation acts set out a list of provisions:Authorisations are required for the collection of and recovery/disposal of wasteThe waste management legislation has strict rules on the contractor of any site, where the cost of the completion of works is in excess of £300,000 (NCE. 11/2009) or €400,000 (FAS 2002) to obtain a waste collection permit,The issuing of a licence to the company in relation to the regulations that comply with the process of licensing by the Environmental protection agency, all waste recovery and disposal techniques have to be issued under the Waste Management Regulations 2001.Relatively small quantities of C&D waste which are perceived to be at low risk to the environment do not have to issue for a licence but instead have to apply to their local authority for a permit or certificate of registration.The European Union sets out standards and legislative systems known as "Regulations" which in turn are binding within the union of all member states.Most European Community Law is set down in 'framework directives' theses directives can contain different requirements that take into account the different environmental and economic conditions in each Member States, where the states parliamentary party implements there directives into legislation of the State, these legislations once incorporated into law hold the Member State to be questioned over there implementation of that law,Since 1975 there have been 17 main Council Directive/Regulations to be introduced by the EC in relation to waste,European Waste CatalogueThis catalogue was drawn up by the European Commission in 1994 after the 1991 amendment of the 1975 Waste Framework Directive, stated that a harmonised list of the different types of wastes be established.

The list was to be designed on the combination of what the waste was, and the process or activity that produced them.This list was eventually divided into 20 different categories, each category being called a chapter; the types of wastes listed are 01 - 20, with up to 13 sub-chapters in some of the categories.Construction and Demolition is included in this catalogue as chapter 17 including 7 sub-chapters which are broken down to classify the type of waste more clearly, the 7 main sub-chapters are:17 01 Concrete, bricks, tiles, ceramics, and gypsum based materials17 02 Wood, glass, plastic,17 03 Asphalt, tar and tarred products,17 04 Metals (including their alloys)17 05 Soil and dredging spoil17 06 Insulation materials17 07 Mixed construction and demolition waste (Williams, 2005, p19- 22)Measures Taken by Irish Government to address C & D Waste problemChanging our waysOn the 1st of October 1998 the national policy on waste management 'Changing Our Ways' was issued by the Department of Environment and local Government. The policy statement focuses on the need to manage C&D Waste which was and continues to be a significant component of the overall waste stream particularly in the current economic circumstances. The Policy statement specifically mention C&D Waste in section 3.7 and 3.8 as an opportunity for the local authorities in the short term to divert significant volumes of C&D Waste from landfills, as the potential resource these materials provide

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