Water Has Become Increasingly Scarce
Water has become increasingly scarce due to factors like population growth, economic growth, increased urbanization and changing climatic patterns. Managing water resources more efficiently has become a priority, especially in developing countries. Cape Town in South Africa is a blooming city, a thriving world-class city on one hand, but there are poor communities who have limited access to basic services.
With 3,2million people living in the city and a growing rate 2.6per cent each year, where in-migration from Ester Cape is the biggest contributor to this growth, means the city need to build 25 000 new houses each year to keep up with the growing rate. But today the number of people with access to basic services is much higher than the number who has formal houses. In Cape Town there is pressure on water recourses, this can lead to tensions, conflicts among users and intense and overloaded pressure o the environment, just like it is the rest of the world. Water scarcity occurs when the demand and availability are in an unbalance. How the water is distributes, conserved and used in communities, the quality of the water available determined if the water available is enough to meet the demand in this paper household and environment.
Some places are more likely to be affected by water scarcity then others, and Cape Town fit the description perfectly. A dry climate, drought, dramatically shift in weathers, wind, periods of heavy rainfall in small areas, long periods of sun and summer, drying and silo caused by overgrazing and deforestation, and water stress due to increasing in people relying of a limited level of run-off.Statistic from Swilling (2006) and date from sheets from Farley:Distribution:Water is important for development and poor people usually cannot afford the cost of water. In Cape Town today 90 per cent of households have access to piped water on site, electricity and a flush toilet. But only 75 per cent of the population has access to those formal houses. Of a total of all the 800 000 houses in cape town in 2005 over 20% households in the City of Cape Town live in informal dwellings or shacks.
And only 68% of households in Cape Town have access to water inside their houses. 111 258 number of households have access to water via a community stand, and a community stand can be more than 200 meters from their homes. The remaining households use boreholes, spring water, rainwater tanks, dams, rivers or streams, and other water sources.These statistic on living condition and water access can be seen in a correlation with households with incomes below R800 per month, which is the poverty line, the poverty rate estimated for 2000 is 50% for the hole of South Africa (Wikipedia).
The unemployment rate of 2009 was 24,3%(sastat) This means over 183 00 of hose hold live in poverty and around 1 million Capetonians are very poor.Use:Households used 37% of all water used in Cape Town in 1998. Of this 21,3% was used irrigate gardens and fill swimming pools, than in 2000 the highest income group used nearly 60 per cent of all domestic water, compared to 20 per cent of all Capetonians had no piped water supply at all.The ecological inefficiency of the existing water system is reflected in the fact that 61 per cent of all water used by households in Cape Town was used to flush toilets and transport sewerage. This is potable water that has been purified at a costly water purification plant. However, 11 per cent of the population had no waterborne sewerage.
To make matters worse, of the 550,000 tonnes of sewerage per annum, only 5 per cent is recycled.Price:Water prices are determined largely by three factors: cost of transport from its source to the user, total demand, and price subsidies, as well as the job to remove contaminants can also be added to the expenses. The cost of transporting water is based on how far, how high the water has to travel. Growing cities and towns may have to venture hundreds of miles to find the water needed to satisfy their increasing thirst, and the price are higher in dry countries compared to water rich.
The average prices range in the world from 66 cents per cubic meter in the U.S. up to $2.25 in Germany. The demand for water increase with the population growth, we can also say that water demand is inelastic. Means that the price elasticity of demand for water evaluates how change in price influences the demand. Thatâ€™s why water prices can increase and the demand will remains constant in spite of very high prices since there is no substitute for water. As we can see throughout the world price of water is increasing dramatically.
Over the past five years, water rates have risen by an average of 50% in South Africa, Edwin H. Clark II in the Eco-Economy Update Series from Earth Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. .New system:The best way to moving toward more rational water management is to place a price on water that reflects its value and scarcity, a more efficient water use and management practices must be introduced. This can, of course, result in substantial price increases that particularly hurt low-income families. The best way to avoid this dilemma is to use a block rate pricing system where a low level of consumption, that required satisfying basic needs, is inexpensive, while prices increase at higher levels of consumption. Where those who have a water access inside their house can be charge a fee that include a cubic meters of water, which is just enough for a family teh meet the bare necessities basic to maintain a healthy life and living.
Beyond that fixed price for set amount the price should increase drastically in steps for high-volume users. So that scarcity for water is highly reflected and the poor will not suffer. To supply water at higher prices it would encourage conservation and less use for the big users, improve water service coverage to reach the poor, and there will be far more equitable water distribution than there is now.But to get this system working the city of Cape town need to complete three steps on the way to give all houses and houses with water accessThe analysis.
Moter toungh, face to face. Understandment, openness, willing ness to make a difference â€¦. Frist of all cape town need to build enough houses give all the houses water supply, they need to be able to send the bill to someone. They need to be able to pay. Ect.When the system is in palce, families that never have had water in thire house before need to begivven information and teache how to live alife with water.
Cleaning, re use, recycling and the importenness of not to use more then needed, because of the price.Improving the management of water distribution is therefore an important development issue. Water is metered for many residential consumers in urban areas and pricing policy can be used to manage water distribution among these users. In informal settlements many households pay for their water and low-income groups have metered connections. This allows the pricing of water to be part of a management system to distribute water in an efficient and just way. Payment for water is part of the funding of the water service but it is also a possible way of regulating the consumption of water.
However, pricing can only regulate consumption if the households react to price changes. And this can only happened if the water price reflects scarcity, so that rich people must cut down and be willing to let the demand for water decrease as the price for water increase.
Article name: Water Has Become Increasingly Scarce essay, research paper, dissertation