Bandwidth Estimation For AD HOC Networks Computer Science

Essay add: 13-11-2017, 17:57   /   Views: 2

AD hoc networks are autonomous, self-organized, wireless, and mobile networks. They do not require setting up any fixed infrastructure such as access points, as the nodes organize themselves automatically to transfer data packets and manage topology changes due to mobility. Many of the current contributions in the ad hoc networking community assume that the underlying wireless technology is the IEEE 802.11 standard due to the broad availability of interface cards and simulation models. This standard provides an ad hoc mode, allowing mobiles to communicate directly. As the communication range is limited by regulations, a distributed routing protocol is required to allow long distance communications. However, this standard has not been targeted especially for multihop ad hoc operation, and it is therefore not perfectly suited to this type of networks. Nowadays, several applications generate multimedia data flows or rely on the proper and efficient transmission of sensitive control traffic. These applications may benefit from a quality of service (QoS) support in the network. That is why this domain has been extensively studied and more and more QoS solutions are proposed for ad hoc networks. However, the term QoS is vague and gathers several concepts. Some protocols intend to offer strong guarantees to the applications on the transmission characteristics, for instance bandwidth, delay, packet loss, or network load. Other solutions, which seem more suited to a mobile environment, only select the best route among all possible choices regarding the same criteria. In both cases, an accurate evaluation of the capabilities of the routes is necessary. Most of the current QoS proposals leave this problem aside, relying on the assumption that the link layer protocols are able to perform such an evaluation. However, they are not. The resource evaluation problem is far from being trivial as it must take into account several phenomena related to the wireless environment but also dependent on less measurable parameters such as the node mobility.

The IEEE 802.11-based networks have been able to provide a certain level of quality of service (QoS) by the means of service differentiation, due to the IEEE 802.11e amendment. Such an evaluation would, however, be a good asset for bandwidth-constrained applications. In multihop ad hoc networks, such evaluation becomes even more difficult. Consequently, despite the various contributions around this research topic, the estimation of the available bandwidth still represents one of the main issues in this field.


Packet creation

Apply the RREQ And get RREP

Admission Control Mechanism

Utilized Bandwidth

Module DescriptionPacket Creation

In this module we split the Data in to N number of Fixed size packet with Maximum length of 48 Characters.

Apply the RREQ and get RREP

The aim of the RREQ is to find a route between the sender and the receiver that meets the constraints specified by the application level in terms of Bandwidth.

Therefore, two flows with the same source and destination can follow different routes depending on the network state.

When a source node has data to send, it broadcasts a route request (RREQ) to its neighbors. The RREQ packet contains the address of the sender, and the requirements at the application level, the destination address, and a sequence number. The Intermediate Node or Destination Node sends RREP if it is free, otherwise, it silently discards the message.

Admission Control Mechanism

The Admission Control Mechanism is done in the receiver side. The Admission Control Mechanism has the all status of the node so if the nodes want to send RREP or discard the message, the particular node check the status by using the Admission Control Mechanism.

Bandwidth Utilized

After the source nodes send the total message to the Destination Node finally we calculate the end to end delivery of the Bandwidth and Time delay.

In module given input and expected output

The source node selects the destination node first and then by using the browse button we select some text file and this text file is send to the destination side.

Module DiagramFirst processDATAP1P2PacketsPn+1PnSecond ProcessApply the RREQ to Neighbor to Destination NodeGet the RREP from the neighbor or destination nodeDestination nodeSource NodeThird processSource NodePacket CreationIntermediate NodeDestination nodeDataflow diagramRREQRREQNode2RREP+RREP+Node4Node1RREQNode3Use case DiagramSelect the nodeGet the RREPApply RREQSourceSourcerSend the dataView the detailsDestinationSourcerClass DiagramState DiagramActivity DiagramSequence DiagramCollaboration DiagramComponent DiagramLiterature ReviewWireless sensor network

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations. The development of wireless sensor networks was originally motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance. However, wireless sensor networks are now used in many civilian application areas, including environment and habitat monitoring, healthcare applications, home automation, and traffic control. In addition to one or more sensors, each node in a sensor network is typically equipped with a radio transceiver or other wireless communications device, a small microcontroller, and an energy source, usually a battery. The envisaged size of a single sensor node can vary from shoebox-sized nodes down to devices the size of grain of dust, although functioning 'motes' of genuine microscopic dimensions have yet to be created. The cost of sensor nodes is similarly variable, ranging from hundreds of dollars to a few cents, depending on the size of the sensor network and the complexity required of individual sensor nodes.[ Size and cost constraints on sensor nodes result in corresponding constraints on resources such as energy, memory, computational speed and bandwidth.

A sensor network normally constitutes a wireless ad-hoc network, meaning that each sensor supports a multi-hop routing algorithm (several nodes may forward data packets to the base station)

Wireless network

Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented with some type of remote information transmission system that uses electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, for the carrier and this implementation usually takes place at the physical level or "layer" of the network Wireless networks have had a significant impact on the world as far back as World War II. Through the use of wireless networks, information could be sent overseas or behind enemy lines easily, efficiently and more reliably. Since then, wireless networks have continued to develop and their uses have grown significantly. Cellular phones are part of huge wireless network systems. People use these phones daily to communicate with one another. Sending information overseas is possible through wireless network systems using satellites and other signals to communicate across the world. Emergency services such as the police department utilize wireless networks to communicate important information quickly. People and businesses use wireless networks to send and share data quickly whether it be in a small office building or across the world. Another important use for wireless networks is as an inexpensive and rapid way to be connected to the Internet in countries and regions where the telecom infrastructure is poor or there is a lack of resources, as in most developing countries.

Compatibility issues also arise when dealing with wireless networks. Different components not made by the same company may not work together, or might require extra work to fix these issues. Wireless networks are typically slower than those that are directly connected through an Ethernet cable.

A wireless network is more vulnerable, because anyone can try to break into a network broadcasting a signal. Many networks offer WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy - security systems which have been found to be vulnerable to intrusion. Though WEP does block some intruders, the security problems have caused some businesses to stick with wired networks until security can be improved. Another type of security for wireless networks is WPA - Wi-Fi Protected Access. WPA provides more security to wireless networks than a WEP security set up. The use of firewalls will help with security breaches which can help to fix security problems in some wireless networks that are more vulnerable.


Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network, electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation (transport) networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology.

In packet switching networks, routing directs forwarding, the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes; typically hardware devices called routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. Ordinary computers with multiple network cards can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. Thus constructing routing tables, which are held in the routers' memory, becomes very important for efficient routing. Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time, but multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths.

Routing, in a more narrow sense of the term, is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. Because structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices, structured addressing (routing, in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging) in large networks, and has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet, though bridging is still widely used within localized environments.

Network congestion

In data networking and queuing theory, network congestion occurs when a link or node is carrying so much data that its quality of service deteriorates. Typical effects include queuing delay, packet loss or the blocking of new connections. A consequence of these latter two is that incremental increases in offered load lead either only to small increase in network throughput, or to an actual reduction in network throughput.

Network protocols which use aggressive retransmissions to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion even after the initial load has been reduced to a level which would not normally have induced network congestion. Thus, networks using these protocols can exhibit two stable states under the same level of load. The stable state with low throughput is known as congestive collapse.

Congestive collapse

Congestive collapse (or congestion collapse) is a condition which a packet switched computer network can reach, when little or no useful communication is happening due to congestion.

When a network is in such a condition, it has settled (under overload) into a stable state where traffic demand is high but little useful throughput is available, and there are high levels of packet delay and loss

Dynamic Source Routing

Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) is a routing protocol for wireless mesh networks. It is similar to AODV in that it forms a route on-demand when a transmitting computer requests one. However, it uses source routing instead of relying on the routing table at each intermediate device. Many successive refinements have been made to DSR, including DSRFLOW.

Determining source routes requires accumulating the address of each device between the source and destination during route discovery. The accumulated path information is cached by nodes processing the route discovery packets. The learned paths are used to route packets. To accomplish source routing, the routed packets contain the address of each device the packet will traverse. This may result in high overhead for long paths or large addresses, like IPv6. To avoid using source routing, DSR optionally defines a flow id option that allows packets to be forwarded on a hop-by-hop basis.

This protocol is truly based on source routing whereby all the routing information is maintained (continually updated) at mobile nodes. It has only 2 major phases which are Route Discovery and Route Maintenance. Route Reply would only be generated if the message has reached the intended destination node (route record which is initially contained in Route Request would be inserted into the Route Reply). To return the Route Reply, the destination node must have a route to the source node. If the route is in the Destination Node's route cache, the route would be used. Otherwise, the node will reverse the route based on the route record in the Route Reply message header (symmetric links). In the event of fatal transmission, the Route Maintenance Phase is initiated whereby the Route Error packets are generated at a node. The erroneous hop will be removed from the node's route cache; all routes containing the hop are truncated at that point. Again, the Route Discovery Phase is initiated to determine the most viable route. For information on other similar protocols, see the ad hoc routing protocol list. Dynamic source routing protocol (DSR) is an on-demand protocol designed to restrict the bandwidth consumed by control packets in ad hoc wireless networks by eliminating the periodic table-update messages required in the table-driven approach. The major difference between this and the other on-demand routing protocols is that it is beacon-less and hence does not require periodic hello packet (beacon) transmissions, which are used by a node to inform its neighbors of its presence. The basic approach of this protocol (and all other on-demand routing protocols) during the route construction phase is to establish a route by flooding Route Request packets in the network. The destination node, on receiving a Route Request packet, responds by sending a Route Reply packet back to the source, which carries the route traversed by the Route Request packet received.

Consider a source node that does not have a route to the destination. When it has data packets to be sent to that destination, it initiates a Route Request packet. This Route Request is flooded throughout the network. Each node, upon receiving a Route Request packet, rebroadcasts the packet to its neighbors if it has not forwarded already or if the node is not the destination node, provided the packet’s time to live (TTL) counter has not exceeded. Each Route Request carries a sequence number generated by the source node and the path it has traversed. A node, upon receiving a Route Request packet, checks the sequence number on the packet before forwarding it. The packet is forwarded only if it is not a duplicate Route Request. The sequence number on the packet is used to prevent loop formations and to avoid multiple transmissions of the same Route Request by an intermediate node that receives it through multiple paths. Thus, all nodes except the destination forward a Route Request packet during the route construction phase. A destination node, after receiving the first Route Request packet, replies to the source node through the reverse path the Route Request packet had traversed. Nodes can also learn about the neighboring routes traversed by data packets if operated in the promiscuous mode (the mode of operation in which a node can receive the packets that are neither broadcast nor addressed to itself). This route cache is also used during the route construction phase. If an intermediate node receiving a Route Request has a route to the destination node in its route cache, then it replies to the source node by sending a Route Reply with the entire route information from the source node to the destination node.

Technique used or algorithm used

The Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing algorithm is a routing protocol designed for ad hoc mobile networks.

It is an on demand algorithm, meaning that it builds routes between nodes only as desired by source nodes. It maintains these routes as long as they are needed by the sources.

Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)

Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing is a routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and other wireless ad-hoc networks. It is jointly developed in Nokia Research Center of University of California, Santa Barbara and University of Cincinnati by C. Perkins and S. Das. AODV is capable of both unicast and multicast routing. It is a reactive routing protocol, meaning that it establishes a route to a destination only on demand. In contrast, the most common routing protocols of the Internet are proactive, meaning they find routing paths independently of the usage of the paths. AODV is, as the name indicates, a distance-vector routing protocol. In AODV, the network is silent until a connection is needed. At that point the network node that needs a connection broadcasts a request for connection. Other AODV nodes forward this message, and record the node that they heard it from, creating an explosion of temporary routes back to the needy node. When a node receives such a message and already has a route to the desired node, it sends a message backwards through a temporary route to the requesting node. The needy node then begins using the route that has the least number of hops through other nodes. Unused entries in the routing tables are recycled after a time. When a link fails, a routing error is passed back to a transmitting node, and the process repeats. Much of the complexity of the protocol is to lower the number of messages to conserve the capacity of the network. For example, each request for a route has a sequence number. Nodes use this sequence number so that they do not repeat route requests that they have already passed on. Another such feature is that the route requests have a "time to live" number that limits how many times they can be retransmitted. Another such feature is that if a route request fails, another route request may not be sent until twice as much time has passed as the timeout of the previous route request. The advantage of AODV is that it creates no extra traffic for communication along existing links. Also, distance vector routing is simple, and doesn't require much memory or calculation. However AODV requires more time to establish a connection, and the initial communication to establish a route is heavier than some other approaches. The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing protocol uses an on-demand approach for finding routes, that is, a route is established only when it is required by a source node for transmitting data packets. It employs destination sequence numbers to identify the most recent path. The major difference between AODV and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) stems out from the fact that DSR uses source routing in which a data packet carries the complete path to be traversed. However, in AODV, the source node and the intermediate nodes store the next-hop information corresponding to each flow for data packet transmission. In an on-demand routing protocol, the source node floods the Route Request packet in the network when a route is not available for the desired destination. It may obtain multiple routes to different destinations from a single Route Request. The major difference between AODV and other on-demand routing protocols is that it uses a destination sequence number (DestSeqNum) to determine an up-to-date path to the destination. A node updates its path information only if the DestSeqNum of the current packet received is greater than the last DestSeqNum stored at the node. A RouteRequest carries the source identifier (SrcID), the destination identifier (DestID), the source sequence number (SrcSeqNum), the destination sequence number (DesSeqNum), the broadcast identifier (BcastID), and the time to live (TTL) field. DestSeqNum indicated the freshness of the route that is accepted by the source. When an intermediate node receives a RouteRequest, it either forwards it or prepares a RouteReply if it has a valid route to the destination. The validity of a route at the intermediate node is determined by comparing the sequence number at the intermediate node with the destination sequence number in the Route Request packet. If a Route Request is received multiple times, which is indicated by the BcastID-SrcID pair, the duplicate copies are discarded. All intermediate nodes having valid routes to the destination, or the destination node itself, are allowed to send RouteReply packets to the source. Every intermediate node, while forwarding a RouteRequest, enters the previous node address and its BcastID. A timer is used to delete this entry in case a RouteReply is not received before the timer expires. This helps in storing an active path at the intermediate node as AODV does not employ source routing of data packets. When a node receives a RouteReply packet, information about the previous node from which the packet was received is also stored in order to forward the data packet to this next node as the next hop toward the destination.


Lower getting-started cost because no need to install base stations

We reduce the collision and network congestion problem


Direct communication between peers is mandatory

No centralized authority at the application level

Ad-hoc networks are suited for use in situations where an infrastructure is unavailable or to deploy one is not cost effective.

Article name: Bandwidth Estimation For AD HOC Networks Computer Science essay, research paper, dissertation