Mobile Eye Based Human Computer Interaction Computer Science
Eye based human computer interaction techniques have thus far been limited to closed environments. However advancement in technology and advent of mobile computing promises to bring eye based interaction techniques to wearable and handled mobile devices. This paper investigates recent methods to track eye movements in the mobile environment. Methods were evaluated by comparing the techniques they rely on, type of work, use of theoretical proofs and simulations.
Mobile computing is the modern way of interacting with digital objects and content. The traditional computing devices such as desktop and laptops computers would soon be replaced by their more mobile and portable counterpart smart phones and tablet computers. As mobile computing techniques evolve, users will able to interact with their mobile and stationary devices in a variety of different ways like through touch, eye movements, voice commands, physical gestures and also the emerging bioelectrical signal detection based approaches, a few of which being already available in today's commercial products. These different forms of modalities are collectively called Multimodal Human Computer Interaction (MMHCI)  techniques; they facilitate increased interaction, increased usability, and increased ability to retrieve data remotely without much physical exertion.
Systems providing MMHCI techniques would require incorporating advanced interactive electronic visual display, video cameras, microphones and other bio-metric sensors, providing a source of input data from daily life settings. These futuristic systems mainly rely on powerful processor to compute data from multiple sources in real time with optimised battery power usage. Current research on MMHCI is focused on differential approach, each interaction techniques here are treated as a separate modality, whereas integrating these different modalities would result in a highly sophisticated cross platform device. A large number of applications and services can be built for these devices by combining these devices with existing mobile telephone network infrastructure.
Amongst the different modalities, Eye based Human Computer Interaction is one of the complex and interesting techniques which has been in HCI research for over two decades  and has been making steady progress. The technique of Eye tracking involves recording and measuring eye moments of the user to know where the point of gaze is and also to record the sequence of eyes movements over different source of information. Eye tracking data can be effectively used for interface-evaluation - aiding in the process of designing better interfaces and as control signal to interact with interfaces  directly without or with minimal use from traditional input devices. Research on eye tracking has also focused on making use of gaze gestures  along with eye tracking to provide more accurate tracking results.
Movement of eyes have been shown to be reflective of cognitive processes , which has been a great source of motivation of HCI researches to device mechanisms to gather eye movement data and perform investigations. Eye based techniques also have the advantage of being unobtrusive and a natural way of interaction with machines and hence form an important type of input mechanism for machines.
In recent years, Multimodal Interaction techniques are increasingly used in portable electronic devices to enhance the overall user experience. Visual interaction with digital objects is becoming more important with the ongoing convergence of phone, computer, television and Internet. This has led to a significant amount of research activity on Eye-based Mobile Interaction and interactive mobile phones [8, 11, 12, 13, 20, 26].1.1 Problem definition
In this paper, a survey is presented to explore power and possibilities of Mobile Eye based Human Computer Interaction techniques and also to study design issues and challenges in the area. Here a qualitative analysis is made on the different Mobile Eye based Human Computer Interaction systems to identify their strengths and weaknesses. Further a proposal is made on the possible future trends of these systems.
The main goal of this study is to explore some of the recent research in Mobile Eye based Human Computer Interaction, to perform a feasibility study on recognising human activity using eye movement analysis, to gather details of best practices in design and development of these innovative systems and to establish a base for possible future research.
The main problem statements in this paper can be outlined as follows:
Identify Mobile Eye based Human Computer Interaction techniques.
Organize and analyze the approaches used for building Mobile Eye based Human Computer Interaction systems.
Define the strength and weakness of each system.
Infer enhancements and enrichment that could be added to the systems.1.2 Motivation
The main reason for working on the topic of Mobile Eye based Human Computer Interaction was to study this amazing interaction technique that would make way for a natural and comfortable interaction with machines, not for normal individuals but also for people with physical disabilities and also it is an opportunity to learn some of the innovative applications in mobile computing and HCI. I was particularly inspired from research project titled NETRA: Interactive Display for EstimatingÂ Refractive Errors and Focal Range , a system which measure eyes focusing ability using a mobile phone, a truly innovative and low cost system developed at MIT lab. Though this is not a typical eye tracking system, it makes use of eye as input for mobile application with the help of a small hardware and a normal touch screen mobile phone, an innovative approach indeed.
Eye tracking products are already available in the market, some of the popular commercial ones are Mobile Eye by Applied SciÂence Laboratories , iView X HED by SensoMotoric Instruments  and Tobii Technology eye tracking and eye control  there are also several products available from open source projects like openEyes , Opengazer  and ITU Gaze Tracker . They defer not only in architecture but also sensing, tracking and usability. In this paper, I will be closely examining several researches on Mobile Eye based Human Computer Interaction, which will give me a chance to gain in-depth knowledge and hands-on experience on an emerging technology. In the years to come with rapid advancement of technology, Eye based Human Computer Interaction would soon become part of normal way of living.1.3 Report organization
This paper analyzes the recent Mobile Eye based Human Computer Interaction systems and conceives ideas for possible futuristic applications. The report is structured as follows:
Chapter 2 gives an overview of previous research on eye-tracking. It defines the concept, introduces to certain terminologies, components and challenges in this area.
Chapter 3 evaluates the techniques from literature survey. It describes their architecture, components, information flow and gives an analysis of its strengths and weaknesses.
Chapter 4 addresses the future trends mobile eye based human computer interaction.
Finally, Chapter 5 provides conclusions and comments from the study.Chapter 2Previous research on Eye based HCI
Eye movement recognition and tracking is an interesting area of research in the field of HCI, psychology and cognitive linguistics, as eye moments has been found to be reflective of not only attention but also cognitive processes . Eye tracking has been used in reading research for over 100 years . Rayner (1998)   provides a wonderful classification on history of eye tracking by dividing it into three eras starting from approximately 1879 till 1998. In the first era interesting facts about basic eye movements are said to discovered, in the second era behavioural aspects of eye movements are mapped to experimental psychology and in the third era (1970 onwards) significant growth was seen in recording and measurement of eye movements. In the recent years eye tracking has seen significant interest in the field of user interface design  and simulations, number of research have increased and can be seen predominantly in Eye Tracking Research and Applications Symposium (ETRA) conference series sponsored by the Association for Computer Machinery (ACM).
I identified three different approaches used for eye tracking until now: 1) Invasive - Wearable contact lenses attached with metal coil to measure electromagnetic fluctuations , 2) Non invasive - Video based eye tracking and Infrared reflection detection, 3) Biometric sensors - electrodes are placed around eye which pick up electro-oculography (EOG) signals from which gaze direction can be estimated. Invasive approach has now been discarded, non-invasive and biometric sensors based approaches have been greatly experimented upon.2.1 Terminologies
Eyes are always in a state of motion, collecting data from wide range of sources around us. Eye moments have been identified by definitive terminologies, each of which can be interpreted differently depending on the duration of vision and interface used for tracking. Some of the basic terminologies are,
Gaze - Direction of vision.
Saccades - Simultaneous movement of both eyes in same direction.
Fixation - Short pause in the movement of eye to observe interesting information.
Scanpath - Sequence of saccades and fixation (straight line reading).2.2 Research Challenges
Eye tracking research faced multiple challenges in the past when eye tracking systems were bulky, unreliable and time consuming. Advancement in technology has eliminated some of these limitations and has made eye tracking systems portability and stable. But today still a large number of challenges exit apart from the constant demand for low cost, increased power and miniaturization.
Eye tracking systems have some basic issues such as user with eye glass or contact lenses block the normal path of reflection, which is an open issue for prototypes depending on reflection from eye. Systems have difficulty in identifying users with large pupil and dropping eye lids. Eyes are sensitive organs so any operation involving eyes as input should be natural, intuitive and ergonomic.
Eye tracking systems have some of the complex issues as well, architecture of the system should be non-intrusive - it should not block the normal vision of its user. Systems should incorporate accessory free and wireless gesture recognition techniques. Gestures should be developed based on concrete context and should be standardised for all the devices. Designing an eye tracking interface is challenging task, system should follow some important guidelines: 1) system should not trigger event for normal eye movements - "Midas touch" problem, 2) cultural issues have to be considered while developing gestures, 3) operations should be sequenced in order and 4) system should be context aware . As with the challenges there are also plenty of opportunities.Chapter 3Mobile Eye based HCI: Literature Survey
Dynamicity of the modern life requires devices that are capable of performing complex operations and yet can be carried places within a pocket. Eye tracking is a highly challenging technique for stationary settings and even more for mobile settings because it involves constant monitoring of rapid eye movements. A variety of different solutions have been proposed to track eye movements and to cope with unstable mobile environment. These solutions have been previously classified into different categories. Andrew Duchowski  provides one such wonderful classification from system analysis point of view as Interactive or Diagnostic systems and also sub divided them on the type of interfaces used such as screen-based or Model based.
I categorized seven of the recent research papers on mobile eye tracking from the hardware point of view as Wearable or Handheld Mobile device based approaches and in the process determined the best suited eye tracking technology for mobile environment. In this section an overview of different architectural approaches used to build eye tracking applications is given, with emphasis on research direction, technology and results from theoretical proofs or simulations.
Mobile Eye Tracking Systems (7)
Wearable systems (4)
Article name: Mobile Eye Based Human Computer Interaction Computer Science essay, research paper, dissertation