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Carter (2001) Sustainable development is an indefinite concept with a meaning that is complex and challenged. Dresner (2002:63) has argued that sustainability is like other essential political ideas, such as liberty and justice, which are 'contestable concepts'. However, people may not agree on the exact meaning, does not mean that there is no meaning at all. European Commission (EC) (2009:7) Sustainable development is a fundamental and all-embracing objective that aims to; continuously...
Radar systems have developed immensely over the past few decades. From detecting enemy aircraft in world war two, to tracking all aircraft in the sky today; radars have become essential to the safety of the air transport industry today. The latest research is looking at improving the range and performance of radar systems. Weather plays a major role in disrupting radar systems, however understanding why performance decreases has allowed improved designs to be created that can perform well in...
The low-lying costal countries, now referred to as "Small Island Developing States (SIDS)" share common problems or difficulties that hinders their development to a great extent. They all face similar challenges such as population growth, limitation of available resources, limitations from protections against natural disasters and a very fragile environment. They also share the common problem of extremely difficult high cost of communication, transportation with little or irregular...
The world around us is changing. Change is in the form of huge advances we have made in the field of industrialization and technology. When we look at the other side we find some aspects which negate all the developments we have achieved. The environment continues to bear the burden of human activities and more so in the recent times. In this paper, an effort has been made to understand the environmental changes we have in reality and what challenges we face to overcome these factors. We...
The term ''wicked'' environmental problem is a word used in describing the uncertain, complex, conflicting and ever changing nature of environmental problems (Rittel and Webber, 1973).These features are what make environmental problems difficult to understand, define and conclusively solve. The wickedness of environmental problems are experienced in studies of Climate Change, Biodiversity, Population, Natural Resource Management but to mention a few. Environmental problems are classified as...
Singapore is set up an ideal example for sustainable urban growth which is liveable and vibrant at the same time. Cities based on sustainable principle thrives social development and economic growth. The exercise of implementation Singapore Key factors of success on Ahmedabad (India) city gives stimuli and guideline to city growth. It helps us to envisaged Ahmedabad collective desire, capabilities, limitation. Singapore success factors pertinent to Ahmedabad context assist us to make good...
Investigations within physical geography use a variety of numerical concepts to develop an understanding of collected quantitative data. Mass balance is an example of one of these concepts and is applied throughout a number of research studies. Mass cannot be created or destroyed and therefore mass balance focuses on the material inputs or outputs within a physical system. When this system is in a steady state the input will equal the output without the inclusion of either accumulation or loss...
Introduction Sustainability of agriculture has become important factor to make the life go smoothly. The agricultural sector is considered as one of the major sector which causes damages to the environment rather than any other. It's because it uses most of the natural resources and energy. It also pollutes the environment. Thus in order to attain sustainably in this sector one must first understand what agriculture is, the meaning usually is derived from the three basic perspectives which are...
Hydropower converts natural flow of water into electricity. The energy is produced by a fall of water turning the blades of a turbine which is connected to a generator that coverts the energy into electricity. It is generated in three different ways, hydroelectricity; Tidal energy and Wave power. Hydroelectricity uses dams where falling water drives massive turbines connected to a generator to generate electricity. Tidal power produces energy by currents caused from the natural ebb and flow of...
Introduction Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. In the context of biomass for energy this is often used to mean plant based material, but biomass can equally apply to both animal and vegetable derived material. Biomass is carbon based and is composed of a mixture of organic molecules containing hydrogen, usually including atoms of oxygen, often nitrogen and also small quantities of other atoms, including alkali, alkaline earth and heavy metals. ...