The Carrock Fell mine is located in the north-east region of the Lake District National Park. Most famously mined for tungsten, the mine may now pose a threat to the aquatic environment. The main pollutant of concern at the site is arsenic due to the abundance of arsenopyrite in the mineral veins present. Water samples were taken from the Grainsgill Beck, a tributary which runs past the mine and into the River Caldew. The analysis of these showed an increase in pH and arsenic concentrations...
The current pace of environmental change in Nigeria prompted partly by degradation continues at an alarming proportion (Weller, 2005). In the past decades, the Niger Delta region in Nigeria has rapidly increased in population and economic activities with infinite profits. Since the early 70's till date, oil deposits were found in commercial quantities in the state and have procured immense profit for the Nigerian economy (Twumasi & Merem, 2006). Land subsidence, which contributes to...
An understanding of why Dual-Fuel Engines (DFEs) are and will be purchased, and how they will be used, is vital in developing markets for the technology, and predicting the impact this technology will have on carbon abatement. Predicting consumer behaviour in the DFE market is challenging as the technology is very distinct from the incumbent, and uptake to date is limited to a very small group of early adopters. As the current study relates to the impact of large scale DFE adoption, care is...
Acid rain is a board term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts nitric and sulphuric acids. The precursors, or chemical forerunners, of acid rain formation result from both natural sources, such as volcanoes and decaying vegetation, and man-made sources, primarily emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from fossil fuel combustion. Damage from acid rain has been widespread in eastern North America and...
The construction industry is under increasing pressure to become sustainable. One way to address this is through the use of reclaimed materials. Reclaimed materials are those that have been previously used in a building or project, and which are then re-used in another project. The materials might be altered, re-sized, refinished, or adapted, but they are not reprocessed in any way, and remain in their original form. Materials that have been reprocessed and reused in the building industry are...
Waste is bound together with life. As a matter of fact, organisms change their environment by absorbing free energy and eventually excreting high-entropy waste so as to maintain low internal entropy [1]. Most school of thoughts define waste as any substance or object within some predefined categories, which the holder discards or is required to discard [2]. In general terms, something becomes waste when it loses its primary function for the user; hence, someone's waste output is often someone...
Job availability in environmental engineering industry varies over time based on government policies, priorities, populations and funding (SCCC). Engineers work in a wide variety of industries, holding different positions that involve in wastewater treatment, mining, air pollution control, facilities planning and consulting (SCCC). Many are employed as consultants by government agencies and research firms. Others work for private companies, dealing with toxic chemical leakage and system design....
Network security system is defined as a collection of network-connected devices, technologies, and best practices that work in complementary ways to provide security to information assets. For a true network system complementary technology that applies to a specific threat pattern is required. As a designer of secure networks one of the things to be considered is the vast interdependency of today's larger networks. These interdependencies from an attacker perspective allow their goals to meet...
Human beings have relied both directly and indirectly on the goods of ecosystems for over 10,000 years. Food, fibre, medicines and fuel are key resources that have contributed to the development and expansion of our species, for which biodiversity has played a considerable role. For the purpose of this essay, biodiversity refers to the variability of life, at many different levels and scales across populations, species, ecosystems and landscapes. This variability provides valuable goods,...
Most commercially obtainable baking powders are invented of an alkaline component typically sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, one or mor extra acid salts (like Tartaric Acid), and an static starch (corn starch in most cases, while, potato starch may also be used). Baking soda is foundation of the carbon suck up dioxide,and the acid-base reaction can be commonly represents thisNaHCO3+ H+ → Na+ + CO2 + H2OThe static starch serves few functions in baking powder. Primarily it...