Study on water quality is based on biological, chemical and physical characteristics of water. The biological, physical and chemical properties of water resources are driven by numerous environmental variables such as climate, water waste effluent. In Malaysia, the riverine ecosystem is of particular interest since river water provides about 98% of the country's water. Malaysia Department of Environment has stated that agriculture and livestock plays a main role in contributing river water...
Deressa and Hassan have analyzed the economic impact of climate change on crop production in Ethiopia by using the Ricardian method. For the estimation, county-level survey data are used and the net crop revenue was regressed on climate (rainfall and temperature), household, and soil variables. They analyzed the seasonal marginal impact of climate variables which are temperature and precipitation on the crop net revenue. The analysis indicates that marginal increase in temperature during...
In order to discuss whether global warming is real, one firstly needs to know what exactly global warming is. In simple terms, it is when the temperature of the earth and its oceans rises. This is known as the greenhouse effect, a process by which the earth's atmosphere traps most of the suns energy-in other words, it stops heat from escaping into outer space. This effect happens when greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrous oxide, and methane get trapped within the...
Natural fibre/polymer composites in civil engineering applications are mostly concentrated on non-load bearing indoor structural components due its vulnerability to environmental attack. This review paper attempts to evaluate the characteristics of these composites based on researches performed on several natural fibre composites exposed to moisture, thermal, fire and ultraviolet degradation. The positive and negative effects of chemical additives such as fibre treatments, fire retardants and...
Introduction Based on a coordinate transformation approach, Pendry et al (2006), have reported electromagnetically anisotropic and inhomogeneous cloaks that, in theory, completely shield an interior object of arbitrary size from electromagnetic fields without disturbing the external fields [1].Broadband Invisibility byNon-Euclidean CloakingOptical transformation allows scientists and engineers to control the path of the electromagnetic waves in an unprecedented manner. Moreover, the optical...
The substance with chemical formula of H2O is known as Water. Two hydrogen and one oxygen atoms are linked by covalent bonding. At room conditions, it is liquid  and also exists in solid and gaseous state depending upon conditions. Near hydrophilic surfaces, it also exists in liquid crystal state.[1][2]About 71% of Earth surface is water,[3] and is very important to all of existing life.[4] On Earth, oceans contain 96.5% water, groundwater 1.7% ice caps of Greenland, Antarctica and...
Today the whole human existence is experiencing difficulties that drive to natural disorder and destruction. The cause for this issue has become a very common and philosophic topic all over the world. Everything began in the distant past when the face of the planet Earth has been transforming since its creation. These are billions of years during which people's home planet has undergone many repeated stages of development. One of these repetitive stages that have an effect on today's image of...
In the modelling of catchment runoff, catchment type and data availability may determine the choice of method to use. Also the choice of method can sometimes interact with the catchment type and the purpose for which the flood estimate is required. Thus consideration and judgment is required for the selection of a suitable method (Reed,1999 . Table 1 below outline a number the advantages and disadvantages of the models previously described in this report.In conclusion to the characteristics...
In the words of Ben Murray, "...it is possible to have a clean, green energy supply in Scotland. By 2030 renewable energy can meet between 60% and 143% of Scotland's projected annual electricity demand, depending of the level of investment in energy saving and new renewables. ...it is entirely plausible that no large-scale fossil fired generating capacity would remain online by 2030."[1]Taking up the challenge to forestall the impacts of climate change and achieve a largely...
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often...