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Past evidence suggests that coral reefs have the resilience to recover from disturbance, however increasing disturbances are proving vulnerable to reefs. Coral reefs in general are directly threatened by both human activities and natural processes (Arthurton 2003). Coral reefs are impacted by many human activities, including over-harvesting, deforestation, and general decline of coastal environments due to increasing population pressures (Kleypas 2000). Reefs are also pretentious to global...
Local officials, developers, and planners have increasingly realized the economic development and the perfect environmental components for the purpose of community growth. However, this awareness comes from the times of environmental neglect, quick and irreversible conversion of good land for farming, excessive development in the urban areas, increased population, as well as, loss of icons in the plant and animal communities. Also, increased development in the recent day affects the air, water,...
This document has been designed to investigate how a mechanical zero carryover liquid desiccants operates and how it can be used in solar functions. In actual facts a novel liquid -desiccant air conditioner has been developed and tested and regarded to provide the drying and cooling process successfully. However, the air conditioner is thus used in transforming the usage of typically undeviating contacts between the HVAC system designed for a liquid desiccant that will assist in improvising...
As corporations seek to improve their environmental performance, they require new methods and tools. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is one of the tools that are used by organizations to understand the environmental impacts associated with their products, services, processes, and activities. Life Cycle Assessment is a tedious process and is quite new and still evolving as a methodology. However, the ideology behind LCA thinking is becoming quite familiar and is being readily adopted by...
There is a worldwide growing concern about the relationship between sustainability and urbanisation had not been widely debated, despite the extensive literature on each as separate concepts. The globalization course produces international influences and images that introduce changes at all scale of planning, it is recognised that globalization affects socio-economic, cultural and environmental attitudes to the city (Carmona and Burgess, 2000).Most current tendencies of urban transformation are...
Floods have been a major natural disaster, affecting the Gambia over the last decade. It effects has been a cause for concern, because the Gambia is situated in the low lying coast and it has a low capacity in resolving the problems on floods. As a result of the rising sea levels, along with excess rainfall and high tides, the Gambia's river reaches its flood stage, causing flooding and inundation.According to UNFCCC (2007), the Gambia is part of the world's most vulnerable countries, that are...
One of the greatest challenges facing planner, city manager, politicians and various other individual, professionals, and organization concerned with human welfare and development is the twin problem of urbanization and environmental health. All over the globe, within various culture and various ideological camps, the twin problems of urbanization and environmental health has become so highly pronounced that it is the major topical issue in most symposia, workshop and conference. Urbanization...
ThyssenKrupp is the largest steel production corporation worldwide, the collaboration between Thyssen AG and Krupp in the year 1999 (ThyssenKrupp n.d.). Started as a steel company, ThyssenKrupp has now expand their production to eight business areas namely; Steel Europe, Steel Americas, Stainless Global and Materials Services for materials division while Elevator Technology, Plant Technology, Components Technology And Marine System for technology division (ThyssenKrupp n.d.).The world is facing...
The volume of primary energy consumption in the world in 2009 declined by 1.1 percent, which was the worst figure since 1982.  Such information is contained in the annual Statistical Review of World Energy Company BP.  Consumption volume was 11.164 billion tons of oil equivalents. Global oil consumption fell by 1.7 percent.  In developed countries, the OECD, the decline was 4.8 percent. In the largest consumer of oil - the U.S. - the decline reached 4.9 percent.  In developing countries,...
One of the major changes that the twentieth century saw was a rapid increase in the consumption of energy. This change is borne out clearly in the census figures. For example a report published by The United States Energy Information Administration on world consumption shows that in 1980, average power consumption rate was 9.37 terawatts compared to 2008 in which total worldwide energy consumption was 15 terawatts (1.504 x1013 W) with 80 to 90 percent derived from the combustion of fossil fuels...