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Sustainable communities refer to living environments that have been modified, built or planned to ensure that life is not threatened by diminishing limited resources, and that continuity of life is guaranteed through the various mechanisms put in place by people inhabiting that environment or making up that community. In other words, it is about using resources to meet current existing needs while at the same time ensuring that enough resources are preserved for future generations (Mark and...
The Construction/demolition industries generate about 35% of the industrial waste in the world, C&D Waste Management in Ireland is coming under increasing pressure as landfill void space is decreasing and waste management costs are rising steeply. (FAS 2002)Construction and demolition waste or remaining building materials was typically co-disposed with other solid wastes until the mid twentieth century. Recycling of this waste was conceived of as a response to the scarce supply of building...
CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY Barrios, Ouattara, and Strobl (2008) studied the impact of climate change on the level of total agricultural production in African developing countries. They concentrated their study on both Sub-Saharan African (SSA) and non-Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) countries. They wanted to fill in the gap of literature concentrated in the African context. Though the agricultural sector in Sub-Saharan Africa amounts to a high percentage of their gross domestic product and swallows most...
Lynas Corporation, a company from Australia has built the worlds largest rare earth extraction plants in Gebeng near the town of Kuantan in Malaysia. The planned capacity is 22,000 tonnes per year [1]. Kuantan is the State Capital and the metropolitan area has a population of more than half a million. It is located on the edge of the South China Sea. The project has generated considerable controversy in Malaysia because of concerns by opponents that there will be major negative health,...
Availability of water is critical for ecosystem health and productivity, ensuring supply of a range of products and services, to benefit human well-being (e.g., GEO4, 2007; MA, 2005). Future pressures from climate change, growing population, rapid land use changes and already degraded water resource quality, may intensify water shortages in specific communities and exacerbate existing environmental and economic concerns (5). Population around the world today depends on the renewable resources...
The overall time from setting up to acquiring results is much shorter. However, there is not much difference in it dose accuracy compared to other dosimetry tools in use. reference 3.When an ionising radiation is exposed to MOSFET, electron-holes are generated within the silicon dioxide layer. The junction potential produced causes electron to migrate to the gates while holes move towards oxide silicon interface. Some of the holes the holes are trapped causing a negative shift in gate voltage....
Floods are a major concern in many parts of the world due to the many losses experienced in time of floods. Therefore, flood management techniques are very important in areas that are prone to frequent flooding. Flood management techniques are structures designed with the aim of containing floodwater in order to control floodplains. The designing of flood control techniques entails estimating the levels of water that causes floods and then measuring the required height that will create a...
On March 24 1989 approximately 12:04 am, the Exxon Valdez oil spill took place in Alaska's Prince William Sound. An estimated of 10.8 million gallons crude oil polluted the waters of Prince William Sound which is part of Gulf of Alaska located on the east of Kenai Peninsula. The oil spill impacted 11,000 square miles of ocean which also includes 470 miles southwest, and 1,300 miles of coastline.The ship was guided through the Valdez Narrows after departed from Trans-Alaska Pipeline terminal in...
Industrialization has caused a vast amount of hazardous compounds to enter our ecosystem and ultimately have a negative effect on ecological diversity, water availability and human food chain. The past century has seen humans populate and introduce a large number of hazardous chemical substances into the natural environments. Waste products from industries, agricultural processes, structural materials, medicine/drugs, e-wastes and pesticides which all destructively effect the environment.The...
Abstract- In this paper we have presented two watermarking algorithms. First one is a new strongly robust scheme for copyright protection. This scheme is based on 'Discrete Wavelet Transform', by embedding scrambled watermark in HL subband at level 3. Direct weighting factor is used in watermark embedding and extraction process. This scheme results in exact recovery of watermark with standard database images of size 512x512, giving Correlation Factor equals to 1. The Correlation Factor for...