Introduction As per the FAO report[1]the world has less than four billion hectares of forest, covering about 30 percent of the world's land area. Forests are unevenly distributed around the world: of 229 countries or other reporting areas in FRA 2005, 43 have forest area exceeding 50 percent of their total land area, while 64 have forest area of less than 10 percent (See figure below)Five countries (Russian, Brazil, Canada, America and China) together have more than half the total forest...
Kranji Reservoir is a tropical reservoir located in the north-western region of Singapore. It was formed by damming the estuary of the Kranji River in 1972. The main objective of the project is to develop an integrated three-dimensional hydrodynamics model for simulation and prediction of tropical reservoir flow hydrodynamics.This report presents the results from the 2-year simulation after assembly and calibration of the Estuary and Lake Computer Model (ELCOM) for Kranji Reservoir. Kranji...
In recent years one of the biggest threats the world as a whole faces is the destruction of our environment. The destruction of the Brazilian rainforest is probably the most important issue that should be taken into consideration because it is the cause of other major ecological problems we are facing such as: global warming, the depletion of our ozone layer, and noticeable climate changes around the world. Brazil's deforestation problem has turned into earth's deforestation problem.Experts say...
From 1990 to 2010, statistical data shows that one of the major findings is the increasing participation of energy sector in emissions (from 31% in 1990 up to 72% in 2010), while the non-energy sector decrease its participation from 69% to 28% in the same period (GHG emission in Colombia).Although Colombia's contribution to Global Greenhouse Gas emissions is marginal (around 0.37%), between 1990 and 2004 its emissions increased by 39%, it means 180.01 million tons of CO2, primarily 38,09% from...
Pesticides have brought advantages in terms of increasing food production. Farmers use pesticides to obtain better quantities and qualities of their product due to demanding consumers to blemish-free products. The first use of insecticide was approximately 4500 years ago by Sumerians that they used sulphur ingredients to protect crop from insects and mites (EcoSMART 19 September 2008).There is a significant role of pesticide in today's agriculture. However, it is clearly seen that some sort of...
Sea turtles are being caught throughout the world even though these endangered species are illegal to hunt them. Most of these sea turtles are being hunt down for food. These turtles are considered a source of fine dine in most parts of the world for centuries now. For instance, one Chinese text that dates back to the 5th century B.[1] describes marine turtles as exotic food. Several coastal countries harvest these sea turtles and use them as a major source of protein in their everyday food....
energy be it a natural resource, a commodity, a societal necessity, or a strategic drive; it is truly the most indispensible growth factor for the world's economy and human well being." Energy has remained the most important determinant of the nations might and its future in the world politics. It is evident in the colonial times the requirement to have large footprint in the world to control its energy source and thereby control the politics. The recent wars in the gulf is ample proof of...
The main purpose of this report is to analyze the P flows and Cd flows in the MIA and then makes some comment on the region development, then makes some suggestions to help to realizing sustainable development. Through analyzing the reference, the results show that: 1646.87 tonnes P and about 198.711 Kg Cd is stocked in the process, and there are about 280.88 tonnes missing P flow and 1.94 Kg missing Cd flow. It also implies that both more P and Cd will are accumulated in the region and the...
Population growth can be defined as an increase or decrease in the population size of living species including human beings. Human populations are also subject to natural process of birth and death. There has been a rapid increase in the worlds human population over the last few decades (UNFPA, 2011). Unless urgent steps are taken to control population, serious problems can arise like environment damage and limited availability of food resources. Continuous population growth can be problem and...
In Southeast Asia, rapid growing population, urbanization and expanding economy has put great anthropogenic pressures on the coral reefs. In many Southeast Asia countries, the economy depends on the sea, especially the coastal region with coral reefs. According to a study conducted by Wilkinson, C.R, the sea has become the source of 60 percent animal proteins in Southeast Asia. (A2) Despites the occasional influences and natural phenomena, such as storm and shoreline erosion, Coral reefs are...