The process of Underground coal Gasification (UCG) is a relatively new concept in hydrocarbon industry. It produces one of the cleanest of all the combustible fuels ie methane and hydrogen. UCG is a process of converting coal into gaseous product or synthesis gas (syngas) by in-situ combustion. The combustion is maintained by injecting oxygen and steam, inside the cavity. This produces one of the most environmental friendly alternative fuel as UCG leaves environment largely untouched as it...
The following report was written to satisfy the mandate given to the B Tech Forestry students by Prof. J.H. Louw. The report will focus on the role of soil organic carbon content as a silvicultural site factor.Soil organic carbon is a major factor that influences various aspects of the functioning and sustainability of the growth site. These factors will discussed in the sections that follow.The reader will realise that the management of soil organic carbon content is vital to the overall...
Molecular beam epitaxy is a technique for epitaxial growth via the interaction of one or several molecular or atomic beams that occurs on a surface of a heated crystalline substrate [1]. Since the energetic models often have dissipative mechanism in the energy law, it is natural to study the energy stability. The energetic phase filed models have been extensively applied to describe mesoscale morphological pattern formations and interfacial motions in many material processes, crystals and...
The worlds dependence on finite, nonrenewable petroleum is at the heart of many of the environmental and energy challenges we face today. Efforts are underway around the world to develop an economically viable and scalable alternative fuel source that will reduce the net emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere. Biofuels can provide an alternative to petroleum-based fuel and also reduce total CO2 emissions. Biofuels can be produced from any biological carbon source, and a variety of crops are...
The term "communication" in this particular context includes the advances made in "telecommunication". Undoubtedly the advances in telecommunication in recent years have created enormous socio-economic impact on individual and enterprise productivity, e-commerce, creation of self employment, and improvement of quality of life and lifestyle choices (Katz, 2009).In the latest ("Verizon Business Identifies Top Technology Trends That Will Support Business Expansion as...
Imagine a world in which environmental change threatens peoples health, physical security, material needs and social cohesion. This is a world beset by increasingly intense and frequent storms, and by rising sea levels. Some people experience extensive flooding, while others endure intense droughts. Species extinction occurs at rates never before witnessed. Safe water is increasingly limited, hindering economic activity. Land degradation endangers the lives of millions of people. This is the...
Recycling is the process in which consumer goods are sent to a waste treatment plant and they are reprocessed to be used again in similar products. Each different material has their own recycling process, and many that are similar is composition are still very different due to small variations in their chemical makeup. This research paper provides information on the economic costs, environmental costs, and the social costs of three widely used consumer products: aluminum, plastic, and...
A perennial change in the statistical division of weather patterns over large time span, is called a "Climate change". It is referred to as an average change in the weather conditions which is due to several reasons; the changes in the concentrations of the greenhouse gases, diversification in solar radiations, mountain-building, volcanic activity, and changes in atmospheric albedo (the reflectivity of a surface). Naturally emanating events and the activities for which a man is...
Government intervention is definitely necessary in dealing with crucial worldly issues such as the global warming. The European Union and other countries have begun programs to promote limiting greenhouse gases, using carbon permits and regulations that will ultimately lead to even higher energy prices in Europe. The United States is also taking a leading role in addressing climate change by advancing many national as well as global measurements. For example, a number of U.S. agencies have...
The Earth is the only planet in the solar system with the human life in it. It also contains air, water and loads of resources present in its core. The humans has begun from the age of early man, they have invented so many things for their survival starting from food, clothing and shelter. In their journey of inventions, discoveries and researches they completely changed the face of the planet. The world has acquired a modernised environment in the 20th century. This modernisation has lead to...