Vehicles in the homogeneous traffic follow lane-based movement and can be conveniently modeled using car-following and lane-changing models. The former one deals with the longitudinal movement behavior while the later deals with the lateral movement behavior. However, typical heterogeneous traffic is characterized by the presence of multiple vehicle types and non-lane-based movement. Because of the off-centered positions of the vehicles, following driver is not necessarily influenced by a...
Satellite images are playing a major role in region structure planning, change detection which is used in defense for protection and also used for study and analysis of geographical structures of earth and space. Clouds are challenging issue in most of the satellite imaging based applications since appearance of cloud on input image will be treated as noise. Accurate detection and removal of cloud region either from an input image or from image acquisition is an important pre processing phase...
Nodes in an ad-hoc network can easily run routing protocols designed for wired networks, provided the nodes contain proper protocol stacks. However, specific features like low bandwidth and high rates of interference present a design problem which is very different from routing in wired networks. A large body of research exists to tackle these specific issues. 1.1 Routing in wireless ad-hoc networks Work on ad-hoc network routing started as early as the 70's with research on the DARPA PRNET...
Wireless MODEMs are the MODEM devices that generate, transmit or decode data from a cellular network for establishing communication between the cellular network and the computer. These are manufactured for specific cellular network (GSM/UMTS/CDMA) or specific cellular data standard (GSM/UMTS/GPRS/EDGE/HSDPA) or technology (GPS/SIM). Wireless MODEMS like other MODEM devices uses serial communication to interface with and need Hayes compatible (AT) commands for communication with the computer(any...
Puzzle games can be very enjoyable and is popular amongst kids as well as adults. Many of you may know the game Sudoku; where by the goal of the game is to fill in the remaining empty cells with each number from 1-9 appearing no more than once from each column, each row and each of the nine sub-grids. Sudoku is a type of logic-based numerical puzzle game that has a unique solution once completed. The most common form of a Sudoku is constructed as a 9x9 grid with nine 3x3 sub-grids and is...
In this project I will talk about starting of history of the algebra which is one of most important branches of arithmetic and Founder of the algebra and meaning of algebra and its benefit of our daily life, how we can learn and teach best way. History of algebra Algebra is an ancient and one of the most basic branches of mathematics. although inventor is Muhammad Musa Al-Khwarizmi, It was not developed or invented by a single person but it evolved over the centuries. The name algebra...
Rijndael, a block cipher whose design was strongly influenced by the block cipher Square, is currently the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Rijndael is a substitution-permutation network that is fast, requires little memory, and is relatively easy to implement. As a new encryption standard, Rijndael is being deployed on a very large scale. For encryption, each round consists for four stages: SubBytes- a non-linear substitution where each byte is replaced with another according to a lookup...
Owning to the cheaper hardware, different kinds of parallel computers are developed by interconnecting several single processor and single storage computers into the multi-processors and multi-storages computer. Therefore, the parallel algorithms are also proposed based on the traditional algorithms by optimizing the traditional algorithms into parallel ones. This report gives an introduction to the parallel algorithms on parallel database, such as sorting, query, join, and indices. 1....
Serge Vaudenay, in his book "A classical introduction to cryptography", writes: Cryptography is the science of information and communication security. Cryptography is the science of secret codes, enabling the confidentiality of communication through an insecure channel. Cryptography protects against unauthorized parties and intruders by preventing unauthorized alteration to the message. It uses a cryptographic system to convert a plain text into cipher text, during this transformation...
ABC Complete Kitchens will need to develop an information systems framework that can support the strategic objectives of management. "An information system (IS) can be any organized combination of people, hardware, software, communications networks, data resources and policies and procedures that a store, retrieves, transform and disseminates information in an organization." {{57 O'Brien-Marakas 2008, p. 2, para. 5}} The IS framework is organized in the following areas: management...